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Autophagy. 2019 Aug 1:1-16. doi: 10.1080/15548627.2019.1639301. [Epub ahead of print]

ESCRT-mediated phagophore sealing during mitophagy.

Author information

1
a Centre for Cancer Cell Reprogramming, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo , Montebello , Norway.
2
b Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital , Montebello , Norway.
3
c Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences , Oslo , Norway.
4
d Centre for Molecular Medicine Norway (NCMM), University of Oslo , Oslo , Norway.

Abstract

Inactivation of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery has been reported to cause autophagic defects, but the exact functions of ESCRT proteins in macroautophagy/autophagy remain incompletely understood. Using live-cell fluorescence microscopy we found that the filament-forming ESCRT-III subunit CHMP4B was recruited transiently to nascent autophagosomes during starvation-induced autophagy and mitophagy, with residence times of about 1 and 2 min, respectively. Correlative light microscopy and electron tomography revealed CHMP4B recruitment at a late step in mitophagosome formation. The autophagosomal dwell time of CHMP4B was strongly increased by depletion of the regulatory ESCRT-III subunit CHMP2A. Using a novel optogenetic closure assay we observed that depletion of CHMP2A inhibited phagophore sealing during mitophagy. Consistent with this, depletion of CHMP2A and other ESCRT-III subunits inhibited both PRKN/PARKIN-dependent and -independent mitophagy. We conclude that the ESCRT machinery mediates phagophore closure, and that this is essential for mitophagic flux. Abbreviations: BSA: bovine serum albumin; CHMP: chromatin-modifying protein; CLEM: correlative light and electron microscopy; EGFP: enhanced green fluorescent protein; ESCRT: endosomal sorting complex required for transport; HEPES: 2-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl]ethanesulfonic acid; HRP: horseradish peroxidase; ILV: intralumenal vesicle; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; LOV2: light oxygen voltage 2; MLS: mitochondrial localization sequence; MT-CO2: mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase II; O+A: oligomycin and antimycin A; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; PIPES: piperazine-N,N-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid); PRKN/PARKIN: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; RAB: RAS-related in brain; SD: standard deviation; SEM: standard error of the mean; TOMM20: TOMM20: translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 20; VCL: vinculin; VPS4: vacuolar protein sorting protein 4; Zdk1: Zdark 1; TUBG: Tubulin gamma chain.

KEYWORDS:

ESCRT; macroautophagy; membrane sealing; mitophagy; phagophore

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