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Nutrients. 2019 Jul 30;11(8). pii: E1752. doi: 10.3390/nu11081752.

Body Mass Index Z-Score Modifies the Association between Added Sugar Intake and Arterial Stiffness in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: The Search Nutrition Ancillary Study.

Author information

1
Department of Health Sciences, Furman University, Greenville, SC 29613, USA. Natalie.The@furman.edu.
2
Department of Rehabilitation, Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA.
3
The Heart Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.
4
Department of Biostatistics, Gillings School of Global Public Health, School of Nursing, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
5
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.
6
Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.
7
Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
8
Department of Biostatistics and Data Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.
9
Department of Research & Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena, CA 91101, USA.
10
Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

Abstract

The relationship between added sugar and arterial stiffness in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) has not been well-described. We used data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study (SEARCH), an ongoing observational cohort study, to determine the association between added sugar and arterial stiffness in individuals diagnosed with T1D <20 years of age (n = 1539; mean diabetes duration of 7.9 ± 1.9 years). Added sugar intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, and arterial stiffness measures included pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index. Separate multivariate linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between added sugar and arterial stiffness. Separate interaction terms were included to test for effect modification by body mass index (BMI) z-score and physical activity (PA). Overall, there was no association between added sugar and arterial stiffness (P > 0.05); however, the association between added sugar and arterial stiffness differed by BMI z-score (P for interaction = 0.003). For participants with lower BMI z-scores, added sugar intake was positively associated with PWV trunk measurements, whereas there was no association for those who had a higher BMI z-score. PA did not significantly modify the association between added sugar and arterial stiffness. Further research is needed to determine the longitudinal relationship and to confirm that obesity differentially affects this association.

KEYWORDS:

added sugar; adolescents and young adults; arterial stiffness; diabetes; epidemiology

PMID:
31366063
DOI:
10.3390/nu11081752
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