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PLoS One. 2019 Jul 31;14(7):e0220563. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0220563. eCollection 2019.

Videographic analysis of flight behaviours of host-seeking Anopheles arabiensis towards BG-Malaria trap.

Author information

Laboratory of Innovation Technologies in Vector Control, Department of Parasitology, Biological Sciences Institute, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Ifakara, Tanzania.
School of Life Sciences, University of Keele, Staffordshire, United Kingdom.
School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, United Kingdom.
Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland.
School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Parktown, Republic of South Africa.


The BG-Malaria trap (BGM) is an adaptation of the well-known BG-Sentinel trap (BGS) with greater trapping efficiencies for anopheline and culicine mosquitoes. Its continued optimization requires greater understanding of mosquito flight behaviors near it. We used three high-resolution infrared cameras (68 frames/second) to track flight behaviors of laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis females in vicinity of the BGM in comparison with BGS. Additional comparisons were done for BGM at 20, 40 and 80cm heights, and for BGMs baited with Ifakara blend plus CO2, CO2 alone, or no bait. More mosquitoes were observed near BGM than BGS. Both BGMs installed 20cm above the floor and baited with CO2 received more visits by host-seeking mosquitoes than the other BGMs evaluated in their respective experiments. Trap designs, height and attractants all influence mosquito activity in vicinity of the traps which can be readily visualized using infrared cameras to accelerate trap development and testing. The greater activity of host-seeking mosquitoes near BGM than BGS supports the proven superiority of BGM traps in field and semi-field settings.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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