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Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2019 Jul-Sep;22(3):336-340. doi: 10.4103/aian.AIAN_323_18.

The Risk of Symptomatic Intracranial Hemorrhage after Thrombolysis for Acute Stroke: Current Concepts and Perspectives.

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1
Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Zaragoza, Spain.

Abstract

Background:

Thrombolysis is the standard of treatment for acute ischemic stroke, with a time window of up to 4½ h from stroke onset. Despite the long experience with the use of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and the adherence to protocols symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH) may occur in around 6% of cases, with high-mortality rate and poor-functional outcomes. Many patients are excluded from thrombolysis on the basis of an evaluation of known risk factors, but there are other less known factors involved.

Objective:

The purpose of this work is to analyze the less known risk factors for SICH after thrombolysis. A search of articles related with this field has been undertaken in PubMed with the keywords (brain hemorrhage, thrombolysis, and acute ischemic stroke). Some risk factors for SICH have emerged such as previous microbleeds on brain magnetic resonance imaging, leukoaraiosis, and previous antiplatelet drug use or statin use. Serum matrix metalloproteinases have emerged as a promising biomarker for better selection of patients, but further research is needed.

Conclusions:

In addition to the already known risk factors considered in the standard protocols, an individualized evaluation of risks is needed to minimize the risk of brain hemorrhage after thrombolysis for ischemic stroke.

KEYWORDS:

Acute stroke; brain hemorrhage; thrombolysis complications

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