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Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2019 Jul 29;23(9):64. doi: 10.1007/s11916-019-0802-0.

Treatment Strategies and Effective Management of Phantom Limb-Associated Pain.

Author information

1
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA, 02215, USA. iurits@bidmc.harvard.edu.
2
Creighton University School of Medicine, Phoenix, AZ, USA.
3
Valley Anesthesiology and Pain Consultants, Phoenix, AZ, USA.
4
Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, USA.
5
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.
6
Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA.
7
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, USA.
8
Department of Anesthesiology, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Phantom sensations are incompletely understood phenomena which take place following an amputation or deafferentation of a limb. They can present as kinetic, kinesthetic, or exteroceptive perceptions. It is estimated that phantom limb pain (PLP) affects anywhere from 40 to 80% of amputees.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Psychiatric illnesses such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorders have higher prevalence in amputees than in the general population. Pharmacologic treatment has been used as first-line therapy for amputees suffering from PLP with agents including gabapentinoids, amitriptyline, and other tricyclic anti-depressants, opioids, and local anesthetics. Non-invasive treatment modalities exist for PLP including sensory motor training, mirror visual therapy, and non-invasive neuromodulation. Non-invasive neuromodulation includes interventions like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation. While many promising therapies for PLP exist, more clinical trials are required to determine the efficacy and protocols needed for maximum benefit in patients suffering from PLP.

KEYWORDS:

Amputation; PLP; Pain management; Phantom limb; Phantom limb pain

PMID:
31359171
DOI:
10.1007/s11916-019-0802-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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