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Biomed Res Int. 2019 Jul 4;2019:8657609. doi: 10.1155/2019/8657609. eCollection 2019.

The Role of Antegrade Irrigation via Percutaneous Nephrostomy on Surgical Outcomes in Semirigid Ureteroscopy among Patients with Upper Ureteral Stones.

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Department of Urology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea.
School of Medicine and Institute for Medical Science, Keimyung University, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu, Republic of Korea.
Department of Urology, St. Vincent's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, Republic of Korea.



We aimed to investigate the role of antegrade irrigation via percutaneous nephrostomy on surgical outcomes in retrograde ureteroscopy in patients with upper ureter stones.

Materials and Methods:

In this retrospective study, we analyzed 134 patients who underwent retrograde semirigid ureteroscopy for upper ureter stones between August 2012 and December 2017. Patients were divided into two groups: retrograde irrigation group (conventional URS) and antegrade irrigation group (using percutaneous nephrostomy). Operation time, postoperative hospital stay, complications, and stone-free rate were measured for each patient after ureteroscopy.


The mean age in the retrograde irrigation and antegrade irrigation groups was 53.3 and 60.7 years, respectively (p=0.007). The operation time was 60.8 min vs. 43.0 min (p=0.002), and stone-free rate was 82.0 % vs. 95.5 % (p=0.033). Stone size, laterality, the proportion of male patients, and urinary tract infection prevalence were comparable between the groups. In the subgroup analysis of stone size >10 mm, the antegrade irrigation group had a shorter operation time and a higher stone-free rate. For stone size of 5-10 mm, operation time in the antegrade irrigation group was shorter and the stone-free rate between the two groups was comparable.


Antegrade irrigation via percutaneous nephrostomy during ureteroscopy has a higher stone-free rate with a shorter operation time without an increased urinary tract infection risk. Therefore, if percutaneous nephrostomy is necessary before ureteroscopy, antegrade irrigation of external fluid via percutaneous nephrostomy is strongly recommended.

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