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Radiol Clin North Am. 2019 Sep;57(5):857-881. doi: 10.1016/j.rcl.2019.03.002. Epub 2019 May 8.

Functional and Surgical Anatomy of the Upper Limb: What the Radiologist Needs to Know.

Author information

1
Department of Radiology, National Women's Hospital, Auckland City Hospital, Greenlane Clinical Center, Auckland District Health Board, 2 Park Road, Grafton, Auckland 1023, New Zealand; Department of Radiology, Hospital Nisa Nueve de Octubre, Calle Valle de la Ballestera, 59, Valencia 46015, Spain. Electronic address: pilucaparisi@yahoo.es.
2
Department of Radiology, Hospital Nisa Nueve de Octubre, Calle Valle de la Ballestera, 59, Valencia 46015, Spain.
3
Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna, Italy.
4
Department of Radiology, University of Foggia, Viale Luigi Pinto 1, Foggia 71100, Italy.
5
1st Orthopaedic and Traumatologic Clinic, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via G. C. Pupilli 1, Bologna 40136, Italy; Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Via U. Foscolo 7, Bologna 40123, Italy.
6
Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via G. C. Pupilli 1, Bologna 40136, Italy.

Abstract

The anatomy of the upper limb is complex and allows for exceptional functionality. The movements of the joints of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist represent a complex dynamic interaction of muscles, ligaments, and bony articulations. A solid understanding and of the characteristics and reciprocal actions of the anatomic elements of the joints of the upper limb helps explain the mechanisms and patterns of injury. This article focuses on the anatomy and functionality of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist, with emphasis on the stabilizing mechanisms, to set the foundation for understanding the occurrence of pathologic conditions.

KEYWORDS:

Anatomy; Elbow; Joints; Shoulder; Stability; Wrist

PMID:
31351538
DOI:
10.1016/j.rcl.2019.03.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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