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Nicotine Tob Res. 2019 Jul 27. pii: ntz124. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntz124. [Epub ahead of print]

Economic evaluation of five tobacco control policies across seven European countries.

Author information

1
Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
2
Centro de Investigação em Saúde Pública, Lisboa, Portugal.
3
Local Health Unit of Matosinhos, Matosinhos, Portugal.
4
TobaccoFree Research Institute Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.
5
Institute of Medical Sociology, Medical Faculty - Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany.
6
Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Health Sciences, Tampere University, Finland.
7
Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
8
Institute of Health and Society, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
9
Tampere University Hospital, Department of Adolescent Psychiatry, Tampere, Finland.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Economic evaluations of tobacco control policies targeting adolescents are scarce. Few take into account real-world, large-scale implementation costs; few compare cost-effectiveness of different policies across different countries. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of five tobacco control policies (non-school bans, including bans on sales to minors, bans on smoking in public places, bans on advertising at points-of-sale, school smoke-free bans, and school education programmes), implemented in 2016 in Finland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Italy, and Portugal.

METHODS:

Cost-effectiveness estimates were calculated per country and per policy, from the State perspective. Costs were collected by combining quantitative questionnaires with semi-structured interviews on how policies were implemented in each setting, in real practice. Short-term effectiveness was based on the literature, and long-term effectiveness was modelled using the DYNAMO-HIA tool. Discount rates of 3.5% were used for costs and effectiveness. Sensitivity analyses considered 1% to 50% short-term effectiveness estimates, highest cost estimates, and undiscounted effectiveness.

FINDINGS:

Non-school bans cost up to €253.23 per healthy life year, school smoking bans up to €91.87 per healthy life year, and school education programmes up to €481.35 per healthy life year. Cost-effectiveness depended on the costs of implementation, short-term effectiveness, initial smoking rates, dimension of the target population, and weight of smoking in overall mortality and morbidity.

CONCLUSIONS:

All five policies were highly cost-effective in all countries according to the World Health Organization thresholds for public health interventions. Cost-effectiveness was preserved even when using the highest costs and most conservative effectiveness estimates.

IMPLICATIONS:

Economic evaluations using real-world data on tobacco control policies implemented at a large scale are scarce, especially considering non-school bans targeting adolescents. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of five tobacco control policies implemented in 2016 in Finland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Italy, and Portugal. This study shows that all five policies were highly cost effective considering the WHO threshold, even when considering the highest costs and most conservative effectiveness estimates.

KEYWORDS:

Adolescents; Economic evaluation; Smoking; Tobacco-control policies

PMID:
31350556
DOI:
10.1093/ntr/ntz124

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