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J Infect Chemother. 2019 Jul 23. pii: S1341-321X(19)30199-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jiac.2019.06.012. [Epub ahead of print]

Seroprevalence and associated factors of Toxoplasma gondii among HIV-infected patients in Tokyo: A cross sectional study.

Author information

1
Department of Tropical Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Infectious Diseases and Infection Control, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address: tohoshina@jikei.ac.jp.
2
Department of Infectious Diseases and Infection Control, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
3
Department of Tropical Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
4
Department of Tropical Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address: kanuka@jikei.ac.jp.

Abstract

HIV infection, in particular in patients with developing AIDS, carries a risk of causing toxoplasmosis with encephalitis, which is mostly caused by a form (bradyzoite) of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. HIV/AIDS in Japan has been recognized as a serious health issue in recent years. In this study, to elucidate T. gondii seroprevalence in HIV-positive patients in Japan and associated characteristics with Toxoplasma parasite infection, the titer of T. gondii IgG (Tg-IgG) was measured in 399 HIV-positive patients who visited a hospital in Tokyo, Japan, between 2015 and 2017. A questionnaire survey was also conducted to investigate associations between lifestyle and customs. As a result, the overall prevalence of Tg-IgG-positive serum was 8.27% (33 cases of 399). All the cases positive for Tg-IgG were confirmed using the Sabin-Feldman dye test; the titers between each examination correlated robustly (p < 0.001, r = 0.6). A correlation between Toxoplasma infection rate and age was determined (p < 0.001), whereas there was no significant correlation with lifestyle customs such as consuming undercooked meat or owning a cat. An association between Toxoplasma infection and experience of dwelling in the Hokkaido area, the northern part of Japan, was observed (p = 0.001). These results suggested that the proportion of those who were previously exposed to Toxoplasma parasites in the HIV-positive population has been maintained at a similar level as that of the HIV-negative population in Japan, providing clear information about the potential risk of toxoplasmic encephalitis.

KEYWORDS:

AIDS; HIV; Japan; Parasite; Seroprevalence; Toxoplasma gondii

PMID:
31350182
DOI:
10.1016/j.jiac.2019.06.012

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