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Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2019 Sep;48(3):557-567. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2019.05.003. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Thyroid Nodules and Thyroid Cancer in the Pregnant Woman.

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Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, 1333 San Pablo Avenue, BMT-B11, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.
The Thyroid Section, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Thorn Building 1st Floor, Room 126. Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:


Thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer are common conditions and may be identified during pregnancy. The comprehensive evaluation of thyroid nodules during pregnancy includes a medical history, physical examination, ultrasound assessment, and (when indicated) an ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Most thyroid cancers detected during pregnancy will not grow nor pose significant risk during gestation, and thyroid surgery in pregnant women poses higher risks than in nonpregnant women. Through a balanced and informed approach to the clinical care of this unique population, outcomes can be optimized for both the mother and the fetus.


Fine-needle aspiration; Pregnancy; TSH; Thyroid cancer; Thyroid nodule


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