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Ann Pharmacother. 2019 Jul 25:1060028019865873. doi: 10.1177/1060028019865873. [Epub ahead of print]

Antibiotic Dosing for Critically Ill Adult Patients Receiving Intermittent Hemodialysis, Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy, and Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: An Update.

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1 Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA.
2 University of the Pacific Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Stockton, CA, USA.
3 University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USA.
4 University of Iowa College of Pharmacy, Iowa City, IA, USA.
5 Iowa City Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System, Iowa City, IA, USA.


Objective: To summarize current antibiotic dosing recommendations in critically ill patients receiving intermittent hemodialysis (IHD), prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT), and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), including considerations for individualizing therapy. Data Sources: A literature search of PubMed from January 2008 to May 2019 was performed to identify English-language literature in which dosing recommendations were proposed for antibiotics commonly used in critically ill patients receiving IHD, PIRRT, or CRRT. Study Selection and Data Extraction: All pertinent reviews, selected studies, and references were evaluated to ensure appropriateness for inclusion. Data Synthesis: Updated empirical dosing considerations are proposed for antibiotics in critically ill patients receiving IHD, PIRRT, and CRRT with recommendations for individualizing therapy. Relevance to Patient Care and Clinical Practice: This review defines principles for assessing renal function, identifies RRT system properties affecting drug clearance and drug properties affecting clearance during RRT, outlines pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic dosing considerations, reviews pertinent updates in the literature, develops updated empirical dosing recommendations, and highlights important factors for individualizing therapy in critically ill patients. Conclusions: Appropriate antimicrobial selection and dosing are vital to improve clinical outcomes. Dosing recommendations should be applied cautiously with efforts to consider local epidemiology and resistance patterns, antibiotic dosing and infusion strategies, renal replacement modalities, patient-specific considerations, severity of illness, residual renal function, comorbidities, and patient response to therapy. Recommendations provided herein are intended to serve as a guide in developing and revising therapy plans individualized to meet a patient's needs.


antibiotic; critical illness; hemodiafiltration; hemodialysis; hemofiltration; pharmacokinetics; renal replacement therapy


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