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Nature. 2019 Aug;572(7768):194-198. doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1418-6. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Soil nematode abundance and functional group composition at a global scale.

Author information

1
Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland. johan.vandenhoogen@usys.ethz.ch.
2
Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
3
Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
4
Department of Entomology & Nematology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.
5
Animal Ecology, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany.
6
Asian School of the Environment, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.
7
Soil Biology Group, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
8
Department of Biology, Evolutionary Ecology Laboratories, Monte L. Bean Museum, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA.
9
Nematode Biodiversity Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.
10
Department of Biology and School of Global Environmental Sustainability, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.
11
School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
12
Institute of Zoology, Terrestrial Ecology, University of Cologne and Cluster of Excellence on Plant Sciences (CEPLAS), Cologne, Germany.
13
Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino, Universidad de La Rioja-Gobierno de La Rioja, Logroño, Spain.
14
Department of Phytopathology, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil.
15
School of Biological Sciences, Institute for Global Food Security, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, UK.
16
Soil Ecology Laboratory, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.
17
Centre of Molecular and Environmental Biology, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal.
18
Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa), Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Trópico Semiárido, Petrolina, Brazil.
19
Zealand Institute of Business and Technology, Slagelse, Denmark.
20
Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles/CDH, Dakar, Senegal.
21
Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias, CSIC, Madrid, Spain.
22
Crop and Soil Systems Research Group, SRUC, Edinburgh, UK.
23
Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz, Görlitz, Germany.
24
Institute of Biology of Karelian Research Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Petrozavodsk, Russia.
25
Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
26
Laboratory of Functional Ecology, Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
27
J. F. Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.
28
Institute of Biology of the Komi Scientific Centre, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar, Russia.
29
Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
30
Nematology Unit, Agricultural Research Council, Plant Health and Protection, Pretoria, South Africa.
31
Department of Environment, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Madrid, Spain.
32
Laboratory of Biotechnology and Valorization of Natural Resources, Faculty of Science Agadir, Ibn Zohr University, Agadir, Morocco.
33
Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
34
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA.
35
Ecological Sciences, The James Hutton Institute, Dundee, UK.
36
Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam.
37
Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia.
38
Nematode Management Group, Division of Applied Entomology and Zoology, Central Region Agricultural Research Center, NARO, Tsukuba, Japan.
39
Institute for Sustainable Agriculture, Spanish National Research Council, Córdoba, Spain.
40
Ecological Processes and Biodiversity, Center for Ecological Studies, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, China.
41
Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
42
Landscape Ecology, Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
43
Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland.
44
Laboratory of Nematology, Department of Plant Pathology, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, Brazil.
45
Biosystematics Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
46
Laboratory of Nematology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
47
Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
48
Plant Protection Products Unit, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Madrid, Spain.
49
Centre of Biodiversity and Sustainable Land Use, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.
50
Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Ecosystems and Environment Research Programme, University of Helsinki, Lahti, Finland.
51
A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
52
Eco&Sols, University of Montpellier, CIRAD, INRA, IRD, Montpellier SupAgro, Montpellier, France.
53
Department of Agroecology, AU-Flakkebjerg, Aarhus University, Slagelse, Denmark.
54
ELISOL Environnement, Congénies, France.
55
Plant Sciences Unit, Flanders Research Institute for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Merelbeke, Belgium.
56
Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster, UK.
57
Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, National Taiwan University, Taipai, Taiwan.
58
Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland. tom.crowther@usys.ethz.ch.

Abstract

Soil organisms are a crucial part of the terrestrial biosphere. Despite their importance for ecosystem functioning, few quantitative, spatially explicit models of the active belowground community currently exist. In particular, nematodes are the most abundant animals on Earth, filling all trophic levels in the soil food web. Here we use 6,759 georeferenced samples to generate a mechanistic understanding of the patterns of the global abundance of nematodes in the soil and the composition of their functional groups. The resulting maps show that 4.4 ± 0.64 × 1020 nematodes (with a total biomass of approximately 0.3 gigatonnes) inhabit surface soils across the world, with higher abundances in sub-Arctic regions (38% of total) than in temperate (24%) or tropical (21%) regions. Regional variations in these global trends also provide insights into local patterns of soil fertility and functioning. These high-resolution models provide the first steps towards representing soil ecological processes in global biogeochemical models and will enable the prediction of elemental cycling under current and future climate scenarios.

PMID:
31341281
DOI:
10.1038/s41586-019-1418-6

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