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Nature. 2019 Aug;572(7770):461-466. doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1444-4. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Global spatial risk assessment of sharks under the footprint of fisheries.

Queiroz N1,2, Humphries NE2, Couto A1, Vedor M1,3, da Costa I1, Sequeira AMM4,5, Mucientes G1, Santos AM1,3, Abascal FJ6, Abercrombie DL7, Abrantes K8, Acuña-Marrero D9, Afonso AS10,11, Afonso P12,13,14, Anders D15, Araujo G16, Arauz R17,18,19, Bach P20, Barnett A8, Bernal D21, Berumen ML22, Bessudo Lion S19,23, Bezerra NPA10, Blaison AV20, Block BA24, Bond ME25, Bonfil R26, Bradford RW27, Braun CD28, Brooks EJ29, Brooks A29,30, Brown J31, Bruce BD27, Byrne ME32,33, Campana SE34, Carlisle AB35, Chapman DD25, Chapple TK24, Chisholm J36, Clarke CR37, Clua EG38, Cochran JEM22, Crochelet EC39,40, Dagorn L20, Daly R41,42, Cortés DD43, Doyle TK44,45, Drew M46, Duffy CAJ47, Erikson T48, Espinoza E19,49, Ferreira LC50, Ferretti F24, Filmalter JD20,42, Fischer GC51, Fitzpatrick R8, Fontes J12,13,14, Forget F20, Fowler M52, Francis MP53, Gallagher AJ54,55, Gennari E42,56,57, Goldsworthy SD58, Gollock MJ59, Green JR60, Gustafson JA61, Guttridge TL62, Guzman HM63, Hammerschlag N55,64, Harman L44, Hazin FHV10, Heard M46, Hearn AR19,65,66, Holdsworth JC67, Holmes BJ68, Howey LA69, Hoyos M19,70, Hueter RE71, Hussey NE72, Huveneers C46, Irion DT73, Jacoby DMP74, Jewell OJD75,76, Johnson R77, Jordan LKB69, Jorgensen SJ78, Joyce W52, Keating Daly CA41, Ketchum JT19,70, Klimley AP19,79, Kock AA42,80,81,82, Koen P83, Ladino F23, Lana FO84, Lea JSE37,85, Llewellyn F59, Lyon WS53, MacDonnell A52, Macena BCL10,13, Marshall H21,86, McAllister JD87, McAuley R88,89, Meÿer MA15, Morris JJ71, Nelson ER55, Papastamatiou YP25, Patterson TA27, Peñaherrera-Palma C19,90, Pepperell JG91, Pierce SJ92, Poisson F20, Quintero LM23, Richardson AJ93, Rogers PJ58, Rohner CA92, Rowat DRL94, Samoilys M95, Semmens JM87, Sheaves M8, Shillinger G19,24,96, Shivji M32, Singh S15, Skomal GB36, Smale MJ97, Snyders LB15, Soler G19,23,87, Soria M20, Stehfest KM87, Stevens JD27, Thorrold SR98, Tolotti MT20, Towner A57,76, Travassos P10, Tyminski JP71, Vandeperre F12,13,14, Vaudo JJ32, Watanabe YY99,100, Weber SB101, Wetherbee BM32,102, White TD24, Williams S29, Zárate PM19,103, Harcourt R104, Hays GC105, Meekan MG50, Thums M50, Irigoien X106,107, Eguiluz VM108, Duarte CM22, Sousa LL2,109, Simpson SJ2,110, Southall EJ2, Sims DW111,112,113.

Author information

1
Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos/Research Network in Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, Campus Agrário de Vairão, Universidade do Porto, Vairão, Portugal.
2
Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Plymouth, UK.
3
Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
4
UWA Oceans Institute, Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia.
5
School of Biological Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia.
6
Spanish Institute of Oceanography, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain.
7
Abercrombie and Fish, Port Jefferson Station, Jefferson, NY, USA.
8
Marine Biology and Aquaculture Unit, College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Cairns, Queensland, Australia.
9
School of Natural and Computational Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
10
Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Departamento de Pesca e Aquicultura, Recife, Brazil.
11
MARE, Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Instituto Politécnico de Leiria, Peniche, Portugal.
12
MARE, Laboratório Marítimo da Guia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Cascais, Portugal.
13
Institute of Marine Research (IMAR), Departamento de Oceanografia e Pescas, Universidade dos Açores, Horta, Portugal.
14
Okeanos - Departamento de Oceanografia e Pescas, Universidade dos Açores, Horta, Portugal.
15
Department of Environmental Affairs, Oceans and Coasts Research, Cape Town, South Africa.
16
Large Marine Vertebrates Research Institute Philippines, Jagna, Philippines.
17
Fins Attached Marine Research and Conservation, Colorado Springs, CO, USA.
18
Programa Restauración de Tortugas Marinas PRETOMA, San José, Costa Rica.
19
MigraMar, Olema, CA, USA.
20
Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, UMR MARBEC (IRD, Ifremer, Université de Montpellier, CNRS), Sète, France.
21
Biology Department, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, Dartmouth, MA, USA.
22
Red Sea Research Center, Division of Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.
23
Fundación Malpelo y Otros Ecosistemas Marinos, Bogota, Colombia.
24
Hopkins Marine Station of Stanford University, Pacific Grove, CA, USA.
25
Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, North Miami, FL, USA.
26
Océanos Vivientes, Mexico City, Mexico.
27
CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.
28
Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Joint Program in Oceanography/Applied Ocean Science and Engineering, Cambridge, MA, USA.
29
Shark Research and Conservation Program, Cape Eleuthera Institute, Eleuthera, Bahamas.
30
University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.
31
South Atlantic Environmental Research Institute, Stanley, Falkland Islands.
32
Department of Biological Sciences, The Guy Harvey Research Institute, Nova Southeastern University, Dania Beach, FL, USA.
33
School of Natural Resources, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.
34
Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
35
School of Marine Science and Policy, University of Delaware, Lewes, DE, USA.
36
Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries, New Bedford, MA, USA.
37
Marine Research Facility, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
38
PSL, Labex CORAIL, CRIOBE USR3278 EPHE-CNRS-UPVD, Papetō'ai, French Polynesia.
39
Agence de Recherche pour la Biodiversité à la Réunion (ARBRE), Saint-Denis, Réunion, Marseille, France.
40
Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, UMR 228 ESPACE-DEV, Saint-Denis, Réunion, Marseille, France.
41
Save Our Seas Foundation-D'Arros Research Centre (SOSF-DRC), Geneva, Switzerland.
42
South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity (SAIAB), Grahamstown, South Africa.
43
Department of Fisheries Evaluation, Fisheries Research Division, Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP), Valparaíso, Chile.
44
School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
45
MaREI Centre, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
46
College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
47
Department of Conservation, Auckland, New Zealand.
48
Geological Sciences, South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity (SAIAB), Durban, South Africa.
49
Direccion Parque Nacional Galapagos, Puerto Ayora, Ecuador.
50
Australian Institute of Marine Science, Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre (UWA), Crawley, Western Australia, Australia.
51
OCEARCH, Park City, UT, USA.
52
Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada.
53
National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington, New Zealand.
54
Beneath the Waves, Herndon, VA, USA.
55
Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
56
Oceans Research, Mossel Bay, South Africa.
57
Department of Ichthyology and Fisheries Science, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa.
58
SARDI Aquatic Sciences, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
59
Zoological Society of London, London, UK.
60
Galapagos Whale Shark Project, Puerto Ayora, Galapagos Islands, Ecuador.
61
Griffith Centre for Coastal Management, Griffith University School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.
62
Bimini Biological Field Station, South Bimini, Bahamas.
63
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City, Panama.
64
Leonard and Jayne Abess Center for Ecosystem Science and Policy, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA.
65
Galapagos Science Center, San Cristobal, Ecuador.
66
Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Ecuador.
67
Blue Water Marine Research, Tutukaka, New Zealand.
68
University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
69
Microwave Telemetry, Columbia, MD, USA.
70
Pelagios-Kakunja, La Paz, Mexico.
71
Mote Marine Laboratory, Center for Shark Research, Sarasota, FL, USA.
72
Biological Sciences, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, Canada.
73
Cape Research and Diver Development, Simon's Town, South Africa.
74
Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, London, UK.
75
Centre for Sustainable Aquatic Ecosystems, Harry Butler Institute, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
76
Dyer Island Conservation Trust, Kleinbaai, South Africa.
77
Blue Wilderness Research Unit, Scottburgh, South Africa.
78
Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey, CA, USA.
79
University of California Davis, Davis, CA, USA.
80
Cape Research Centre, South African National Parks, Steenberg, South Africa.
81
Shark Spotters, Fish Hoek, South Africa.
82
Institute for Communities and Wildlife in Africa, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
83
Veterinary Services, Western Cape Department of Agriculture, Elsenburg, South Africa.
84
Departamento de Biologia Marinha, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niterói, Brazil.
85
Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
86
Atlantic White Shark Conservancy, Chatham, MA, USA.
87
Fisheries and Aquaculture Centre, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.
88
Department of Fisheries, Government of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
89
Minderoo Foundation, Flourishing Oceans Initiative, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
90
Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador Sede Manabi, Portoviejo, Ecuador.
91
Pepperell Research and Consulting, Noosa, Queensland, Australia.
92
Marine Megafauna Foundation, Truckee, CA, USA.
93
Conservation and Fisheries Department, Ascension Island Government, Georgetown, Ascension Island, UK.
94
Marine Conservation Society Seychelles, Victoria, Seychelles.
95
CORDIO, Mombasa, Kenya.
96
Upwell, Monterey, CA, USA.
97
Department of Zoology and Institute for Coastal and Marine Research, Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.
98
Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, USA.
99
National Institute of Polar Research, Tachikawa, Tokyo, Japan.
100
Department of Polar Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Tachikawa, Tokyo, Japan.
101
Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Penryn, UK.
102
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA.
103
Department of Oceanography and Environment, Fisheries Research Division, Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP), Valparaíso, Chile.
104
Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
105
School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.
106
AZTI - Marine Research, Pasaia, Spain.
107
IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao, Spain.
108
Instituto de Fisica Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, University of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
109
Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Tubney, UK.
110
Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
111
Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Plymouth, UK. dws@mba.ac.uk.
112
Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. dws@mba.ac.uk.
113
Centre for Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. dws@mba.ac.uk.

Abstract

Effective ocean management and the conservation of highly migratory species depend on resolving the overlap between animal movements and distributions, and fishing effort. However, this information is lacking at a global scale. Here we show, using a big-data approach that combines satellite-tracked movements of pelagic sharks and global fishing fleets, that 24% of the mean monthly space used by sharks falls under the footprint of pelagic longline fisheries. Space-use hotspots of commercially valuable sharks and of internationally protected species had the highest overlap with longlines (up to 76% and 64%, respectively), and were also associated with significant increases in fishing effort. We conclude that pelagic sharks have limited spatial refuge from current levels of fishing effort in marine areas beyond national jurisdictions (the high seas). Our results demonstrate an urgent need for conservation and management measures at high-seas hotspots of shark space use, and highlight the potential of simultaneous satellite surveillance of megafauna and fishers as a tool for near-real-time, dynamic management.

PMID:
31340216
DOI:
10.1038/s41586-019-1444-4

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