Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS Genet. 2019 Jul 24;15(7):e1008292. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1008292. eCollection 2019 Jul.

polyamine uptake transporter 2 (put2) and decaying seeds enhance phyA-mediated germination by overcoming PIF1 repression of germination.

Author information

Department of Botany and Plant Biology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
Institute of Genetics and Genomics in Geneva (iGE3), University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
Central Laboratories and Research Support, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Olomouc, Czech Republic.
Department of Genetic Resources for Vegetables, Medicinal and Special Plants, Crop Research Institute, Olomouc, Czech Republic.


Red light promotes germination after activating phytochrome phyB, which destabilizes the germination repressor PIF1. Early upon seed imbibition, canopy light, unfavorable for photosynthesis, represses germination by stabilizing PIF1 after inactivating phyB. Paradoxically, later upon imbibition, canopy light stimulates germination after activating phytochrome phyA. phyA-mediated germination is poorly understood and, intriguingly, is inefficient, compared to phyB-mediated germination, raising the question of its physiological significance. A genetic screen identified polyamine uptake transporter 2 (put2) mutants that overaccumulate polyamines, a class of antioxidant polycations implicated in numerous cellular functions, which we found promote phyA-mediated germination. In WT seeds, our data suggest that canopy light represses polyamines accumulation through PIF1 while red light promotes polyamines accumulation. We show that canopy light also downregulates PIF1 levels, through phyA; however, PIF1 reaccumulates rapidly, which limits phyA-mediated germination. High polyamines levels in decaying seeds bypass PIF1 repression of germination and stimulate phyA-mediated germination, suggesting an adaptive mechanism promoting survival when viability is compromised.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center