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Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019 Jul 19;6(7):ofz247. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofz247. eCollection 2019 Jul.

Outcomes in Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis Infections Complicated by Respiratory Viral Infections in Patients With Hematologic Malignancies: A Case-Control Study.

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Department of Infectious Disease, Infection Control and Employee Health.
Department of Microbiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston.



Data regarding invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) following respiratory viral infections (RVIs) in patients with leukemia and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (LHSCT) are limited.


We conducted a retrospective case-control study of post-RVI IPA (2006-2016). Cases were patients who underwent LHSCT and had RVI due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus (INF), or parainfluenza virus (PIV) followed by culture-documented IPA within 6 weeks. Controls had IPA only.


We identified 54 cases and 142 controls. Among cases, 29 (54%) had PIV infection, 14 (26%) had INF infection, and 11 (20%) had RSV infection. The median time to IPA after RVI was 7 days. A greater percentage of cases (37 [69%]) than controls (52 [37%]) underwent allogeneic HSCT (P < .0001). Cases were more likely to be nonneutropenic (33 [61%] vs 56 [39%]; P = .009) and in hematologic remission (27 [50%] vs 39 [27%]; P = .003) before IPA. Cases were more likely to have monocytopenia (45 [83%] vs 99 [70%]; P = .05) and less likely to have severe neutropenia (21 [39%] vs 86 [61%]; P = .007) at IPA diagnosis. Prior use of an Aspergillus-active triazole was more common in cases (27 of 28 [96%] vs 50 of 74 [68%]; P = .0017). Median time to empirical antifungal therapy initiation was 2 days in both groups. Crude 42-day mortality rates did not differ between cases (22%) and controls (27%), but the 42-day mortality rate was higher among cases with IPA after RSV infection (45%) than among those with IPA following INF or PIV infection (13%; P = .05).


IPA had comparable outcomes when it followed RVI in patients who underwent LHSCT, and post-RVI IPA occurred more frequently in patients with prior allogeneic HSCT and was associated with leukemia relapse and neutropenia.


Aspergillus; hematologic malignancy; influenza; parainfluenza; respiratory syncytial virus

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