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Plant Methods. 2019 Jul 12;15:74. doi: 10.1186/s13007-019-0460-6. eCollection 2019.

Regeneration and transient gene expression in protoplasts of Draparnaldia (chlorophytes), an emerging model for comparative analyses with basal streptophytes.

Author information

1Centre for Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, LS2 9JT UK.
2Botanical Institute, Cluster of Excellence on Plant Sciences (CEPLAS), University of Cologne, Zülpicher Str. 47b, 50674 Cologne, Germany.



Green plants comprise two lineages: (1) the streptophytes that colonised land and (2) the chlorophytes that have adaptations to land but remained mostly aquatic. To better understand what made streptophytes so successful, we are currently establishing the chlorophyte alga Draparnaldia sp. (Chaetophorales, Chlorophyceae) as a model for comparative analyses between these two lineages. However, establishing Draparnaldia as a valuable model requires that it can be transformed. Thus, our goal is to develop a transformation protocol for this alga.


We have established the first transformation protocol for Draparnaldia. This protocol is based on protoplast transformation by electroporation. It includes instructions on protoplast isolation, regeneration and transient transfection. It also provides a list of the effective selective agents for future Draparnaldia transformations.


Our protocol opens a way for Draparnaldia functional genomics analyses. Moreover, it also provides an important base for establishment of stable transformation.


Chlorophytes; Colonization of land; Draparnaldia; Land plants; Model organism; Protoplasts; Streptophytes; Transformation

Conflict of interest statement

Competing interestsThe authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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