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Sci Rep. 2019 Jul 23;9(1):10638. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-47180-x.

Prevalence of healthy lifestyles against cancer in Spanish women.

Author information

1
Servicio de Medicina Preventiva y Gestión de Calidad, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain.
2
Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid, Spain. vicarvajal@isciii.es.
3
Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health, CIBERESP, Madrid, Spain. vicarvajal@isciii.es.
4
Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid, Spain.
5
Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health, CIBERESP, Madrid, Spain.
6
General Directorate Public Health, and FISABIO, Valencia, Spain.
7
Cancer Prevention and Control Unit, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Barcelona, Spain.
8
Navarra Breast cancer Screening Program, Public Health Institute, Pamplona, Spain.
9
Galicia Breast Cancer Screening Program, Regional Authority of Health, Galicia Regional Government, Corunna, Spain.
10
Aragon Breast Cancer Screening Program, Health Service of Aragon, Zaragoza, Spain.
11
Castile-Leon Breast Cancer Screening Program, General Directorate Public Health SACYL, Burgos, Spain.
12
Balearic Islands Breast Cancer Screening Program, Health Promotion for Women and Childhood, General Directorate Public Health and Participation, Regional Authority of Health and Consumer Affairs, Balearic Islands, Palma, Spain.
13
Epidemiology Section, Public Health Division, Department of Health of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Abstract

Modifying behavior towards healthier lifestyles could prevent a significant number of malignant tumors. We evaluated the prevalence of healthy habits against cancer in Spanish women free of this disease, taking as a reference the recommendations for cancer prevention included in the European Code Against Cancer (ECAC), and we explored the characteristics associated with it. Our population comprised 3,584 women recruited in a population-based cross-sectional study carried out in 7 breast cancer screening programs. Information was directly surveyed and used to calculate a score based on ECAC recommendations referred to bodyweight, physical activity, diet, breastfeeding, tobacco, alcohol and hormone replacement therapy use. The degree of adherence was estimated with a score that evaluated null (0 points), partial (0.5 points) and full adherence (1 point) of each specific recommendation. Associations were explored using binary and ordinal logistic regression models. The median score was 5.7 out of 9 points. Recommendations with lower adherence were those related to intake of red/processed meat and foods high in salt (23% of total adherence), physical activity (24%) and body weight (29%), and recommendations with greater adherence where those related to hormone replacement therapy use (91%), vegetable intake (84%), alcohol (83%) and tobacco (61%). Overall adherence was better among older women, parous women, and in those living in rural areas, and worse among women with higher caloric intake. These recommendations should be evaluated periodically. Screening programs can be an appropriate place to disseminate this information.

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