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J Leukoc Biol. 2019 Jul 23. doi: 10.1002/JLB.2A0918-368RR. [Epub ahead of print]

Lysophosphatidic acid up-regulates IL-10 production to inhibit TNF-α synthesis in Mϕs stimulated with LPS.

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Laboratory of Molecular Membrane Biology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology of Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.


Bacterial LPS strongly induces pro-inflammatory responses of Mϕs after binding to CD14 protein and the TLR4/MD-2 receptor complex. The LPS-triggered signaling can be modulated by extracellular lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which is of substantial importance for Mϕ functioning under specific pathophysiological conditions, such as atherosclerosis. The molecular mechanisms of the crosstalk between the LPS- and LPA-induced signaling, and the LPA receptors involved, are poorly known. In this report, we show that LPA strongly inhibits the LPS-induced TNF-α production at the mRNA and protein levels in primary Mϕs and Mϕ-like J774 cells. The decreased TNF-α production in LPA/LPS-stimulated cells is to high extent independent of NF-κB but is preceded by enhanced expression and secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The IL-10 elevation and TNF-α reduction are both abrogated upon depletion of the LPA5 and LPA6 receptors in J774 cells and can be linked with LPA-mediated activation of p38. We propose that the binding of LPA to LPA5 and LPA6 fine-tunes the LPS-induced inflammatory response by activating p38, and up-regulating IL-10 and down-regulating TNF-α production.


CD14; LPA receptor; TLR4; inflammatory response


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