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Microbiology. 2019 Jul 23. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.000817. [Epub ahead of print]

Sensing and responding to diverse extracellular signals: an updated analysis of the sensor kinases and response regulators of Streptomyces species.

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1School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7TJ, UK.
2Institut für Biologie/Mikrobiologie, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
3Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RE, UK.
4Department of Paediatrics, Division of Host-Microbe Systems and Therapeutics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.


Streptomyces venezuelae is a Gram-positive, filamentous actinomycete with a complex developmental life cycle. Genomic analysis revealed that S. venezuelae encodes a large number of two-component systems (TCSs): these consist of a membrane-bound sensor kinase (SK) and a cognate response regulator (RR). These proteins act together to detect and respond to diverse extracellular signals. Some of these systems have been shown to regulate antimicrobial biosynthesis in Streptomyces species, making them very attractive to researchers. The ability of S. venezuelae to sporulate in both liquid and solid cultures has made it an increasingly popular model organism in which to study these industrially and medically important bacteria. Bioinformatic analysis identified 58 TCS operons in S. venezuelae with an additional 27 orphan SK and 18 orphan RR genes. A broader approach identified 15 of the 58 encoded TCSs to be highly conserved in 93 Streptomyces species for which high-quality and complete genome sequences are available. This review attempts to unify the current work on TCS in the streptomycetes, with an emphasis on S. venezuelae.


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