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J Nutr. 2019 Jul 23. pii: nxz147. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxz147. [Epub ahead of print]

A Mediterranean Diet Rich in Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Is Associated with a Reduced Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Older Individuals at High Cardiovascular Risk.

Collaborators (268)

Estruch R, Martínez-González MA, Corella D, Fitó M, Ros E, Salas-Salvadó J, Arós F, Aldamiz-Echevarría M, Alonso-Gómez AM, Berjón J, Forga L, Gállego J, García-Layana A, Larrauri A, Portu-Zapirain J, Timiraos J, Ros E, Covas MI, Martínez-González MA, Salas-Salvadó J, Pérez-Heras A, Serra-Mir M, Pi-Sunyer X, González CA, Hu FB, Sabaté J, de la Cruz E, Galera A, Gimenez-Garcia M, Lafuente H, Rodríguez-Sanchez MA, Trias F, Sarasa I, Figueras R, Liceran M, Pallarols C, Esteve V, Storniolo C, Serra-Mir M, Pérez-Heras A, Sala-Vila A, Valls-Pedret C, Viñas C, Casas R, Medina-Remón A, Romero S, Baena JM, García M, Oller M, Amat J, Duaso I, García Y, Iglesias C, Simón C, Quinzavos L, Parra L, Liroz M, Benavent J, Clos J, Pla I, Amorós M, Bonet MT, Martín MT, Sánchez MS, Altirriba J, Manzano E, Altés A, Cofán M, Doménech M, Freitas-Simoes TM, Roth I, Amor AJ, Ortega E, Laguna JC, Alegret M, Gilabert R, Bargalló N, Martínez-González MA, Buil-Cosiales P, Toledo E, García-Arellano A, Cenoz-Osinaga JC, Lecea-Juárez O, Razquin C, Sánchez-Tainta A, Sanjulián B, Díez-Espino J, Zazpe I, Basterra-Gortari FJ, Eguaras S, Goñi E, Vazquez Z, Bes-Rastrollo M, Gea A, Martín-Calvo N, Berrade N, Marti A, Alfredo Martínez J, Martínez-Lapiscina EH, García-López M, Cervantes S, Barcena Amigo F, Oreja Arrayago C, Lasanta Saez MJ, Quintana Pedraza L, Cia Lecumberri P, Elcarte Lopez T, Forcen Alonso T, Alvárez-Alvárez I, Salas-Salvadó J, Guasch-Ferré M, González R, Molina C, Márquez F, Babio N, García Roselló J, Diaz-López A, Martin F, Tort R, Isach A, Becerra N, Ferreira C, Cabré JJ, Fernández-Ballart J, Ibarrola-Jurado N, Mestres G, Rosique-Esteban N, Alegret C, Martínez P, Millán S, Piñol JL, Basora T, Salas-Huetos A, Hernández JM, Carrasco P, Ortega-Azorín C, Asensio EM, Osma R, Barragán R, Francés F, Guillén M, González JI, Sáiz C, Portolés O, Giménez FJ, Coltell O, Fernández-Carrión R, Guillem-Sáiz P, González-Monje I, Quiles L, Pascual V, Riera C, Pages MA, Godoy D, Carratalá-Calvo A, Sánchez-Navarro S, Valero-Barceló C, Fitó M, Vila J, Subirana I, Tello S, de la Torre R, Muñoz-Aguayo D, Elosua R, Marrugat J, Schröder H, Molina N, Maestre E, Rovira A, Farré M, Arós F, Timiraos J, Salaverría I, Rekondo J, Belló MC, Del Hierro T, Algorta J, Francisco S, Alonso A, San Vicente J, Sanz E, Felipe I, Alonso Gómez A, Loma-Osorio A, Gómez-Gracia E, Fernández-Crehuet J, Gutiérrez-Bedmar M, Benítez Pont R, Bianchi Alba M, Wärnberg J, Gómez-Huelgas R, Martínez-González J, Velasco García V, de Diego Salas J, Baca Osorio A, Gil Zarzosa J, Sánchez Luque JJ, Vargas López E, Romaguera D, García-Valdueza M, Moñino M, Yáñez A, Proenza A, Prieto R, Munuera S, Vivó M, Bestard F, Munar JA, Coll L, Fiol F, Ginard M, Jover A, García J, Leal M, Martínez E, Santos-Lozano JM, Ortega-Calvo M, Román P, José García F, Iglesias P, Corchado Y, Mellado L, Miró-Moriano L, Lozano-Rodríguez JM, Domínguez-Espinaco C, Vaquero-Díaz S, López-Sabater MC, Castellote-Bargalló AI, Quifer-Rada P, Palmas L, Álvarez-Pérez J, Díaz-Benítez EM, Sánchez-Villegas A, Casañas-Quintana LT, Pérez-Cabrera J, Ruano-Rodríguez C, Bautista-Castaño I, Sarmiento de la Fe F, García Pastor JA, Díaz-González BV, Castillo Anzalas JM, Sosa-Also RE, Medina-Ponce J, Cabezas C, Vinyoles E, Rovira MA, García L, Flores G, Verdú JM, Baby P, Ramos A, Mengual L, Roura P, Yuste MC, Guarner A, Rovira A, Santamaría MI, Mata M, de Juan C, Brau A, Ruiz-Gutiérrez V, Sánchez Perona J, Montero Romero E, García-García M, Jurado-Ruiz E, Portillo MP, Sáez G, Tur J.

Author information

1
Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario de Bellvitge-IDIBELL, Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.
2
Ciber Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain.
3
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.
4
Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Facultat de Biologia, INSA-UB, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
5
Departamento de Nutrición, Ciencias de la Alimentación y Gastronomía, Facultad de Farmacia y Ciencias de la Alimentación, Campus de la Alimentación Torribera, INSA-UB, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
6
Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Clínic, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.
7
Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
8
Human Nutrition Department, Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Institut d'Investigació Sanitaria Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain.
9
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
10
Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut Hospital del Mar d'Investigacions Mèdiques, Barcelona, Spain.
11
Department of Nutrition and Physiology, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
12
IMDEA Food, Madrid, Spain.
13
Lipid Clinic, Endocrinology, and Nutrition Service, Hospital Clínic, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is thought to reduce liver steatosis.

OBJECTIVES:

To explore the associations with liver steatosis of 3 different diets: a MedDiet + extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), MedDiet + nuts, or a control diet.

METHODS:

This was a subgroup analysis nested within a multicenter, randomized, parallel-group clinical trial, PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED trial: ISRCTN35739639), aimed at assessing the effect of a MedDiet on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. One hundred men and women (mean age: 64 ± 6 y), at high cardiovascular risk (62% with type 2 diabetes) from the Bellvitge-PREDIMED center were randomly assigned to a MedDiet supplemented with EVOO, a MedDiet supplemented with mixed nuts, or a control diet (advice to reduce all dietary fat). No recommendations to lose weight or increase physical activity were given. Main measurements were the percentage of liver fat and the diagnosis of steatosis, which were determined by NMR imaging. The association of diet with liver fat content was analyzed by bivariate analysis after a median follow-up of 3 y.

RESULTS:

Baseline adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors were similar among the 3 treatment arms. At 3 y after the intervention hepatic steatosis was present in 3 (8.8%), 12 (33.3%), and 10 (33.3%) of the participants in the MedDiet + EVOO, MedDiet + nuts, and control diet groups, respectively (P = 0.027). Respective mean values of liver fat content were 1.2%, 2.7%, and 4.1% (P = 0.07). A tendency toward significance was observed for the MedDiet + EVOO group compared with the control group. Median values of urinary 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid/creatinine concentrations were significantly (P = 0.001) lower in the MedDiet + EVOO (2.3 ng/mg) than in the MedDiet + nuts (5.0 ng/mg) and control (3.9 ng/mg) groups. No differences in adiposity or glycemic control changes were seen between groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

An energy-unrestricted MedDiet supplemented with EVOO, a food with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, is associated with a reduced prevalence of hepatic steatosis in older individuals at high cardiovascular risk.

KEYWORDS:

Mediterranean diet; PREDIMED; dietary fat; hepatic steatosis; nuts; olive oil

PMID:
31334554
DOI:
10.1093/jn/nxz147

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