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Brain Circ. 2019 Apr-Jun;5(2):68-73. doi: 10.4103/bc.bc_9_19. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Local endovascular infusion and hypothermia in stroke therapy: A systematic review.

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Department of Neurology, Beijing Luhe Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
Department of Neurosurgery, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA.


Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, but there are no effective, widely applicable stroke therapies. Systemic hypothermia is an international mainstay of postcardiac arrest care, and the neuroprotective benefits of systemic hypothermia following cerebral ischemia have been proven in clinical trials, but logistical issues hinder clinical acceptance. As a novel solution to these logistical issues, the application of local endovascular infusion of cold saline directly to the infarct site using a microcatheter has been put forth. In small animal models, the procedure has shown incredible neuroprotective promise on the biochemical, structural, and functional levels, and preliminary trials in large animals and humans have been similarly encouraging. In addition, the procedure would be relatively cost-effective and widely applicable. The administration of local endovascular hypothermia in humans is relatively simple, as this is a normal part of endovascular intervention for neuroendovascular surgeons. Therefore, it is expected that this new therapy could easily be added to an angiography suite. However, the neuroprotective efficacy in humans has yet to be determined, which is an end goal of researchers in the field. Given the potentially massive benefits, ease of induction, and cost-effective nature, it is likely that local endovascular hypothermia will become an integral part of endovascular treatment following ischemic stroke. This review outlines relevant research, discusses neuroprotective mechanisms, and discusses possibilities for future directions.


Endovascular stroke therapy; local endovascular infusion; local hypothermia

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