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J Family Med Prim Care. 2019 Jun;8(6):1846-1849. doi: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_288_19.

Socioeconomic status scales-modified Kuppuswamy and Udai Pareekh's scale updated for 2019.

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Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.


Socioeconomic status (SES) is one of the prime factors influencing the health status of a nation. It is the measure of the social standing of the individual or a family and has a wide impact on an individual/family's health, educational attainment, diet, lifestyle, etc., The per capita income of citizens is a major factor that decides the SES of the population. The affordability and utilization of the health facilities depend on the socioeconomic profile of the population. The periodic changes in the consumer price of goods globally as well as nationally due to inflation warrants that it is mandatory to constantly update the income-based socioeconomic scales so as the assessment is made correctly in practice. We are making an attempt to provide an updated Kuppuswamy and Udai Pareekh's socioeconomic scales for 2019.


2019; Kuppuswamy; Udai Pareekh; socioeconomic

Conflict of interest statement

There are no conflicts of interest. List of abbreviations: CPI, Consumer Price Index; SES, Socioeconomic scale

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