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Zookeys. 2019 Jul 8;861:91-105. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.861.34686. eCollection 2019.

Three new subfamilies of skipper butterflies (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae).

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Departments of Biophysics and Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX, 75390-9050, USA University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas United States of America.
Institute for Protein Design and Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, HSB J-405, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA University of Washington Seattle United States of America.
Laubacher Str. 4, 35423 Lich, Hessen, Germany Unaffiliated Seattle United States of America.
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD 20815-6789, USA Howard Hughes Medical Institute Chevy Chase United States of America.


We obtained and analyzed whole genome data for more than 160 representatives of skipper butterflies (family Hesperiidae) from all known subfamilies, tribes and most distinctive genera. We found that two genera, Katreus Watson, 1893 and Ortholexis Karsch, 1895, which are sisters, are well-separated from all other major phylogenetic lineages and originate near the base of the Hesperiidae tree, prior to the origin of some subfamilies. Due to this ancient origin compared to other subfamilies, this group is described as Katreinae Grishin, subfam. n. DNA sequencing of primary type specimens reveals that Ortholexismelichroptera Karsch, 1895 is not a female of Ortholexisholocausta Mabille, 1891, but instead a female of Ortholexisdimidia Holland, 1896. This finding establishes O.dimidia as a junior subjective synonym of O.melichroptera. Furthermore, we see that Chamunda Evans, 1949 does not originate within Pyrginae Burmeister, 1878, but, unexpectedly, forms an ancient lineage of its own at the subfamily rank: Chamundinae Grishin, subfam. n. Finally, a group of two sister genera, Barca de Nicéville, 1902 and Apostictopterus Leech, [1893], originates around the time Hesperiinae Latreille, 1809 have split from their sister clade. A new subfamily Barcinae Grishin, subfam. n. sets them apart from all other Hesperiidae.


Africa; Asia; genomics; higher classification; phylogeny

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