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PLoS One. 2019 Jul 22;14(7):e0220009. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0220009. eCollection 2019.

Compositional analyses of the associations between sedentary time, different intensities of physical activity, and cardiometabolic biomarkers among children and youth from the United States.

Author information

1
Faculty of Kinesiology, Sport and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
2
Healthy Active Living and Obesity Research Group, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
3
School of Health and Social Care, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
4
Department of Movement and Sport Science, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Compositional data analysis is one appropriate method for co-dependent data, even when data are collected for a subdivision of the 24-hour period, such as the waking day. Objectives were to use compositional analyses to examine the combined and relative associations of sedentary time (ST), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA), and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) with cardiometabolic biomarkers in a representative sample of children and youth.

METHODS:

This cross-sectional study included 2544 participants aged 6-17 years from the 2003-2006 United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. ST (<100 counts per minute), LPA (100 counts per minute to <4 METs; Freedson age-specific equation), MPA (4 to <7 METs), and VPA (≥7 METs) were accelerometer-derived. Cardiometabolic biomarkers included waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) z-score, HDL-cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and blood pressure. Triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and LDL-cholesterol were measured in a fasting sub-sample of adolescents (n = 670). Compositional linear regression models were conducted.

RESULTS:

The composition of ST, LPA, MPA, and VPA was significantly associated with BMI z-score, log waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, and log plasma glucose (variance explained: 1-29%). Relative to the other three behaviors, VPA was negatively associated with BMI z-score (γVPA = -0.206, p = 0.005) and waist circumference (γVPA = -0.03, p = 0.001). Conversely, ST was positively associated with waist circumference (γST = 0.029, p = 0.013). ST and VPA were also positively associated with diastolic blood pressure (γST = 2.700, p = 0.018; γVPA = 1.246, p = 0.038), relative to the other behaviors, whereas negative associations were observed for LPA (γLPA = -2.892, p = 0.026). Finally, VPA was positively associated with HDL-cholesterol, relative to other behaviors (γVPA = 0.058, p<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

The ST and physical activity composition appears important for many aspects of cardiometabolic health in children and youth. Compositions with more time in higher-intensity activities may be better for some aspects of cardiometabolic health.

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