Send to

Choose Destination
J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs. 2019 Jul 21. doi: 10.1111/jcap.12246. [Epub ahead of print]

Increased risk of head injury in pediatric patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Author information

Department of Surgery, Division of Trauma, Burns, and Surgical Critical Care, University of California, Irvine, California.



The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the general pediatric population is 7%, whereas the prevalence in trauma is unknown. We hypothesized pediatric patients with ADHD would have a higher risk of involvement in a mechanism of injury (MOI) requiring constant attention to surroundings, such as a bicycle collision.


The Pediatric Trauma Quality Improvement Program (2014-2016) was queried for patients with ADHD. Patients, less than 16 years of age, with ADHD were compared to those without ADHD.


The prevalence of ADHD was 2.5% (2,866). ADHD patients had higher risk for bicycle collision (odds ratio [OR], 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59-2.15; p < .001). ADHD bicyclists were less likely to wear a helmet (9.4% vs. 18.2%, p = .003) and had a higher rate of traumatic brain injury (TBI; 55.6% vs. 39.7%, p < .001), compared to non-ADHD bicyclists.


Pediatric ADHD patients have a 60% higher risk of being involved in a bicycle collision. ADHD patients that are involved in a bicycle collision are less likely to wear a helmet with a higher rate of TBI. Increased public awareness, education, and supervision may help reduce risk of bicycle collisions and TBI in this population.


ADHD; bicycle; collisions; traumatic brain injury


Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center