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Curr Biol. 2019 Aug 5;29(15):2443-2454.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.06.039. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Cytoskeleton Dynamics Are Necessary for Early Events of Lateral Root Initiation in Arabidopsis.

Author information

1
Center for Organismal Studies (COS), University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
2
Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zurich, 8008 Zurich, Switzerland.
3
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma 630-0192, Japan; Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan.
4
Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan.
5
Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zurich, 8008 Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address: joop.vermeer@botinst.uzh.ch.
6
Center for Organismal Studies (COS), University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address: alexis.maizel@cos.uni-heidelberg.de.

Abstract

How plant cells re-establish differential growth to initiate organs is poorly understood. Morphogenesis of lateral roots relies on the asymmetric cell division of initially symmetric founder cells. This division is preceded by the tightly controlled asymmetric radial expansion of these cells. The cellular mechanisms that license and ensure the coordination of these events are unknown. Here, we quantitatively analyze microtubule and F-actin dynamics during lateral root initiation. Using mutants and pharmacological and tissue-specific genetic perturbations, we show that dynamic reorganization of both microtubule and F-actin networks is necessary for the asymmetric expansion of the founder cells. This cytoskeleton remodeling intertwines with auxin signaling in the pericycle and endodermis in order for founder cells to acquire a basic polarity required for initiating lateral root development. Our results reveal the conservation of cell remodeling and polarization strategies between the Arabidopsis zygote and lateral root founder cells. We propose that coordinated, auxin-driven reorganization of the cytoskeleton licenses asymmetric cell growth and divisions during embryonic and post-embryonic organogenesis.

KEYWORDS:

Arabidopsis; F-actin; asymmetric radial expansion; auxin; cortical microtubules; cytoskeleton; founder cells; lateral root formation

PMID:
31327713
DOI:
10.1016/j.cub.2019.06.039
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