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Nat Commun. 2019 Jul 19;10(1):3203. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-11164-2.

Activation of NIX-mediated mitophagy by an interferon regulatory factor homologue of human herpesvirus.

Author information

1
Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.
2
Department of Cell Biology, Institute for Basic Biomedical Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.
3
Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA. ychoi15@jhmi.edu.

Abstract

Viral control of mitochondrial quality and content has emerged as an important mechanism for counteracting the host response to virus infection. Despite the knowledge of this crucial function of some viruses, little is known about how herpesviruses regulate mitochondrial homeostasis during infection. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is an oncogenic virus causally related to AIDS-associated malignancies. Here, we show that HHV-8-encoded viral interferon regulatory factor 1 (vIRF-1) promotes mitochondrial clearance by activating mitophagy to support virus replication. Genetic interference with vIRF-1 expression or targeting to the mitochondria inhibits HHV-8 replication-induced mitophagy and leads to an accumulation of mitochondria. Moreover, vIRF-1 binds directly to a mitophagy receptor, NIX, on the mitochondria and activates NIX-mediated mitophagy to promote mitochondrial clearance. Genetic and pharmacological interruption of vIRF-1/NIX-activated mitophagy inhibits HHV-8 productive replication. Our findings uncover an essential role of vIRF-1 in mitophagy activation and promotion of HHV-8 lytic replication via this mechanism.

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