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J Biol Chem. 1988 Jul 5;263(19):9129-41.

Human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene. Promoter and structural gene nucleotide sequences.

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Gaubius Institute TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands.


We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene and significant stretches of DNA which extend into its 5'-and 3'-flanking DNA regions; a total sequence of 15,867 base pairs (bp) is presented. The sequenced 5'-flanking DNA (1,520 bp) contains the essential eukaryotic cis-type proximal regulatory elements CCAAT and TATAA; the more distal 5'-flanking DNA region, as well as some introns, contain sequence elements which share identities with known eukaryotic enhancer elements. A major finding is the identification of a large region of shared nucleotides (comprising of about 520 bp) between the 5'-flanking DNAs of PAI-1 and tissue-type plasminogen activator genes. The length of the PAI-1 5'-untranslated region was found to be 145 bp as determined by nuclease analysis. The remaining PAI-1 structural gene consists of amino acid coding regions (containing a total of 1,206 bp, coding for the 23 amino acids of the signal peptide and 379 amino acids of the mature PAI-1 protein), 8 intron regions (a total of 8,978 bp), and a long 3'-untranslated region of about 1,800 bp which contains several polyadenylation sites. Two types of repetitive DNA elements are located within the PAI-1 structural gene and flanking DNAs: we have found 12 Alu elements and 5 repeats of a long poly (Pur) element. These Alu-Pur elements may represent a subset of the more abundant Alu family of repetitive sequence elements.

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