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Bioinformation. 2019 Jun 15;15(6):402-411. doi: 10.6026/97320630015402. eCollection 2019.

Putative role of conserved water molecules in the hydration and inter-domain recognition of mono nuclear copper centers in O2-bound human ceruloplasmin: A comparative study between X-ray and MD simulated structures.

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Department of Chemistry National Institute of Technology-Durgapur, West Bengal, Durgapur - 713209, India.


Human Ceruloplasmin (hCP) is an unique multicopper oxidase which involves in different biological functions e.g., iron metabolism, copper transportation, biogenic amine oxidation ,and its malfunction causes Wilson's and Menkes diseases. MD- simulation studies of O2- bound solvated structure have revealed the role of several conserved/ semi-conserved water molecules in the hydration of type-I copper centers and their involvement to recognition dynamics of these metal centers. In O2- bound structure, hydration potentiality of CuRS (Cu1106) type-I copper center is observed to be unique, where two water molecules (W1-W2) are interacting with the metal sites, which was not found in X-ray structures of hCP. Generally, in the interdomain recognition of CuCys-His to CuRS, CuRS to CuPR and CuPR to CuCys-His centers, the copper bound His-residue of one domain interacts with the Glu-residue of other complementary domain through conserved/ semi-conserved (W3 to W5) water- mediated hydrogen bonds (Cu-His...W...Glu), however direct salt-bridge (Cu-His...Glu) interaction were observed in the X- ray structures. The MD- simulated and X- ray structures have indicated some possibilities on the Cu-His...W...Glu ↔ Cu-His...Glu transition during the interdomain recognition of type-I copper centers, which may have some importance in biology and chemistry of ceruloplasmin.


Ceruloplasmin; MD- simulation; Type-1 copper centers; conserved water molecules; multicopper oxidase

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