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JCI Insight. 2019 Jul 16;5. pii: 127736. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.127736.

Identification and therapeutic rescue of autophagosome and glutamate receptor defects in C9ORF72 and sporadic ALS neurons.

Shi Y1,2,3, Hung ST1,2,3, Rocha G1,2,3, Lin S1,2,3, Linares GR1,2,3, Staats KA1,2,3, Seah C1,2,3, Wang Y3,4, Chickering M1,2,3, Lai J1,2,3, Sugawara T1,2,3, Sagare AP3,4, Zlokovic BV3,4, Ichida JK1,2,3.

Author information

1
Department of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
2
Eli and Edythe Broad CIRM Center for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at USC, Los Angeles, California, USA.
3
Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
4
Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Abstract

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease with diverse etiologies. Therefore, the identification of common disease mechanisms and therapeutics targeting these mechanisms could dramatically improve clinical outcomes. To this end, we developed induced motor neuron (iMN) models from C9ORF72 and sporadic ALS (sALS) patients to identify targets that are effective against these types of cases, which together comprise ~90% of patients. We find that iMNs from C9ORF72 and several sporadic ALS patients share two common defects - impaired autophagosome formation and the aberrant accumulation of glutamate receptors. Moreover, we show that an anticoagulation-deficient form of activated protein C, 3K3A-APC, rescues these defects in both C9ORF72 and sporadic ALS iMNs. As a result, 3K3A-APC treatment lowers C9ORF72 dipeptide repeat protein (DPR) levels, restores nuclear TDP-43 localization, and rescues the survival of both C9ORF72 and sporadic ALS iMNs. Importantly, 3K3A-APC also lowers glutamate receptor levels and rescues proteostasis in vivo in C9ORF72 gain- and loss-of-function mouse models. Thus, motor neurons from C9ORF72 and at least a subset of sporadic ALS patients share common, early defects in autophagosome formation and glutamate receptor homeostasis and a single therapeutic approach may be efficacious against these disease processes.

KEYWORDS:

ALS; Neurodegeneration; Neuroscience; Stem cells

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