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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Jul 30;116(31):15398-15406. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1907697116. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Flexible electronic/optoelectronic microsystems with scalable designs for chronic biointegration.

Song E1,2, Chiang CH3, Li R4,5, Jin X6, Zhao J7, Hill M3, Xia Y2, Li L8, Huang Y2, Won SM2, Yu KJ9, Sheng X8, Fang H10, Alam MA6, Huang Y11,12,13, Viventi J3, Chang JK14,2, Rogers JA14,2,11,13,15,16,17,18,19,20.

Author information

1
Center for Bio-Integrated Electronics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208.
2
Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801.
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708.
4
State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, 116024 Dalian, China.
5
International Research Center for Computational Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, 116024 Dalian, China.
6
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
7
Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801.
8
Department of Electronic Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing, China.
9
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 03722 Seoul, Republic of Korea.
10
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115.
11
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208.
12
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208.
13
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208.
14
Center for Bio-Integrated Electronics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208; jkchang@northwestern.edu jrogers@northwestern.edu.
15
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208.
16
Department of Neurological Surgery, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208.
17
Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208.
18
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208.
19
Simpson Querrey Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208.
20
Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208.

Abstract

Flexible biocompatible electronic systems that leverage key materials and manufacturing techniques associated with the consumer electronics industry have potential for broad applications in biomedicine and biological research. This study reports scalable approaches to technologies of this type, where thin microscale device components integrate onto flexible polymer substrates in interconnected arrays to provide multimodal, high performance operational capabilities as intimately coupled biointerfaces. Specificially, the material options and engineering schemes summarized here serve as foundations for diverse, heterogeneously integrated systems. Scaled examples incorporate >32,000 silicon microdie and inorganic microscale light-emitting diodes derived from wafer sources distributed at variable pitch spacings and fill factors across large areas on polymer films, at full organ-scale dimensions such as human brain, over ∼150 cm2 In vitro studies and accelerated testing in simulated biofluids, together with theoretical simulations of underlying processes, yield quantitative insights into the key materials aspects. The results suggest an ability of these systems to operate in a biologically safe, stable fashion with projected lifetimes of several decades without leakage currents or reductions in performance. The versatility of these combined concepts suggests applicability to many classes of biointegrated semiconductor devices.

KEYWORDS:

bioelectronics; biomedical implants; electrocorticography; flexible electronics; heterogeneous integration

PMID:
31308234
PMCID:
PMC6681732
[Available on 2020-01-15]
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1907697116

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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