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Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2019 Jun 28. pii: S0049-0172(18)30563-8. doi: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2019.06.017. [Epub ahead of print]

Prevalence and metric of depression and anxiety in systemic lupus erythematosus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Author information

1
University of Toronto SLE Clinic, Centre for Prognosis Studies in the Rheumatic Diseases, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: amousta2@uwo.ca.
2
University of Toronto SLE Clinic, Centre for Prognosis Studies in the Rheumatic Diseases, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: moazzami_mitra@gwu.edu.
3
University of Toronto SLE Clinic, Centre for Prognosis Studies in the Rheumatic Diseases, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: lisa.engel@uhnresearch.ca.
4
Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: Elvira.Bangert@medportal.ca.
5
Michigan State University, College of Human Medicine, East Lansing, Michigan, United States. Electronic address: hassanein.mh@gmail.com.
6
Lecturer, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Neuropsychiatry Division, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: Sherief.Marzouk@uhn.ca.
7
Forensic Psychiatrist, Alberta Hospital Edmonton, Assistant Clinical Professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address: maryana@ualberta.ca.
8
University of Toronto Lupus Clinic, Centre for Prognosis Studies in the Rheumatic Diseases, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: william.fung@medportal.ca.
9
Assistant Professor of Medicine, University of Toronto, Women's College Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: Lihi.EDER@wchospital.ca.
10
University of Toronto Lupus Clinic, Centre for Prognosis Studies in the Rheumatic Diseases, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: Jiandong.Su@uhnresearch.ca.
11
Departments of Medicine and Immunology, University of Toronto, Division of Rheumatology, Toronto Western Hospital, Senior Scientist, Krembil Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: Joan.Wither@uhnresearch.ca.
12
Centre for Prognosis Studies in the Rheumatic Diseases, Toronto Western Hospital, EW, 1-412, 399 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 2S8, Canada. Electronic address: zahi.touma@uhn.ca.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To systematically review and synthesize literature on 1) the overall prevalence of depression and anxiety in SLE patients in identified studies, and 2) the pooled prevalence per metrics of depression and anxiety in adult SLE patients.

METHODS:

This review used (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) PRISMA guidelines and in-depth searches in four databases (1954-2016; Ovid-based Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL) to identify articles on the prevalence of depression and/or anxiety in adult SLE patients. Included studies were critically appraised and analyzed. The prevalence of depression and anxiety was studied for all included studies, and whenever possible, pooled prevalence (PP) was determined for more commonly used metrics. Statistical and publication bias was assessed using funnel plots.

RESULT:

A total of 3103 references were identified, 226 were selected for detailed review and 72 were included in the final analysis.

OVERALL PREVALENCE:

The depression PP, obtained from 69 studies representing 23,386 SLE patients, was 35.0% (95% CI: 29.9%-40.3%). The anxiety PP, obtained from 38 studies representing 4439 SLE patients, was 25.8% (95% CI: 19.2%-32.9%).

PREVALENCE PER METRICS USED:

The more commonly used instruments included the Centre for Epidemiological Studies - Depression (CES-D), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS-A/D), and Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression/Anxiety (HAM-D/A)]. The CES-D was utilized in 13 studies including 1856 SLE patients; depression PP was 41.5% (95% CI: 35.1%-48.1%). The BDI was utilized in 14 studies including 1355 SLE patients and the BAI in 3 studies including 489 patients; depression PP was 39.9% (95% CI: 31.1%-49.1) and anxiety PP was 38.4% (95% CI: 34.2%-42.8%). The HADS-D was utilized in 14 studies including 1238 SLE patients and the HADS-A in 12 studies including 1099 patients respectively; its depression PP was 24.4% (95% CI: 19.1%-30.1%) and anxiety PP was 38.3% (95% CI: 29.1%-47.9%). The HAM-D was utilized in 4 studies including 267 SLE patients and the HAM-A in 4 studies including 213 patients respectively; its depression PP was 40.0% (95% CI: 23.0%-59.0%) and anxiety PP was 39.0% (95% CI: 32.0%-45.0%).

CONCLUSION:

There was high variability in the prevalence of depression and anxiety, ranging from 8.7%-78.6% and 1.1%-71.4%, respectively. This could be attributed to the lack of consistency in the metrics used and its definition for depression and anxiety in SLE. Studies that used a specific metric, such as the CES-D, BDI or HAM-D, yielded similar depression prevalence. The HADS-D had the lowest prevalence. All metrics of anxiety yielded similar anxiety prevalence.

KEYWORDS:

Anxiety disorder; Mood disorder; Systemic lupus erythematosus

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