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Sci Rep. 2019 Jul 12;9(1):10136. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-46585-y.

Neutrophil-derived miR-223 as local biomarker of bacterial peritonitis.

Author information

1
Division of Infection and Immunity, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
2
Wales Kidney Research Unit, Heath Park Campus, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
3
Division of Cancer and Genetics, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
4
Department of Medicine, Section of General Pathology, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.
5
Directorate of Nephrology and Transplantation, Cardiff and Vale University Health Board, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
6
Systems Immunity Research Institute, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
7
Division of Infection and Immunity, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom. eberlm@cf.ac.uk.
8
Systems Immunity Research Institute, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom. eberlm@cf.ac.uk.

Abstract

Infection remains a major cause of morbidity, mortality and technique failure in patients with end stage kidney failure who receive peritoneal dialysis (PD). Recent research suggests that the early inflammatory response at the site of infection carries diagnostically relevant information, suggesting that organ and pathogen-specific "immune fingerprints" may guide targeted treatment decisions and allow patient stratification and risk prediction at the point of care. Here, we recorded microRNA profiles in the PD effluent of patients presenting with symptoms of acute peritonitis and show that elevated peritoneal miR-223 and reduced miR-31 levels were useful predictors of bacterial infection. Cell culture experiments indicated that miR-223 was predominantly produced by infiltrating immune cells (neutrophils, monocytes), while miR-31 was mainly derived from the local tissue (mesothelial cells, fibroblasts). miR-223 was found to be functionally stabilised in PD effluent from peritonitis patients, with a proportion likely to be incorporated into neutrophil-derived exosomes. Our study demonstrates that microRNAs are useful biomarkers of bacterial infection in PD-related peritonitis and have the potential to contribute to disease-specific immune fingerprints. Exosome-encapsulated microRNAs may have a functional role in intercellular communication between immune cells responding to the infection and the local tissue, to help clear the infection, resolve the inflammation and restore homeostasis.

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