Send to

Choose Destination
Sci Rep. 2019 Jul 12;9(1):10113. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-46099-7.

Reduction of physiological stress by urban green space in a multisensory virtual experiment.

Author information

Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
Department of Occupational Health Sciences and Psychology, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
Division of Applied Acoustics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Monell Chemical Senses Centre, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
Stockholm University Brain Imaging Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.


Although stress is an increasing global health problem in cities, urban green spaces can provide health benefits. There is, however, a lack of understanding of the link between physiological mechanisms and qualities of urban green spaces. Here, we compare the effects of visual stimuli (360 degree virtual photos of an urban environment, forest, and park) to the effects of congruent olfactory stimuli (nature and city odours) and auditory stimuli (bird songs and noise) on physiological stress recovery. Participants (N = 154) were pseudo-randomised into participating in one of the three environments and subsequently exposed to stress (operationalised by skin conductance levels). The park and forest, but not the urban area, provided significant stress reduction. High pleasantness ratings of the environment were linked to low physiological stress responses for olfactory and to some extent for auditory, but not for visual stimuli. This result indicates that olfactory stimuli may be better at facilitating stress reduction than visual stimuli. Currently, urban planners prioritise visual stimuli when planning open green spaces, but urban planners should also consider multisensory qualities.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center