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J Pediatr. 2019 Oct;213:155-162.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.06.025. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

Factors Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Use in Community Care Settings.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH. Electronic address: kelly.kamimura-nishimura@cchmc.org.
2
Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH.
3
Department of Pediatrics, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH.
4
Research Institute, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
5
Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA.
6
The Children's Home of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.
7
Research Information Solutions and Innovation, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To examine patient- and provider-level factors associated with receiving attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication treatment in a community care setting. We hypothesized that the likelihood of ADHD medication receipt would be lower in groups with specific patient sociodemographic (eg, female sex, race other than white) and clinical (eg, comorbid conditions) characteristics as well as physician characteristics (eg, older age, more years since completing training).

STUDY DESIGN:

A retrospective cohort study was conducted with 577 children (mean age, 7.8 years; 70% male) presenting for ADHD to 50 community-based practices. The bivariate relationship between each patient- and physician-level predictor and whether the child was prescribed ADHD medication was assessed. A multivariable model predicting ADHD medication prescription was conducted using predictors with significant (P < .05) bivariate associations.

RESULTS:

Sixty-nine percent of children were prescribed ADHD medication in the year after initial presentation for ADHD-related concerns. Eleven of 31 predictors demonstrated a significant (P < .05) bivariate relationship with medication prescription. In the multivariable model, being male (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01-1.78; P = .02), living in a neighborhood with higher medical expenditures (OR, 1.11 for every $100 increase; 95% CI, 1.03-1.21; P = .005), and higher scores on parent inattention ratings (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.03-1.10; P < .0001) increased the likelihood of ADHD medication prescription.

CONCLUSIONS:

We found that some children, based on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, are less likely to receive an ADHD medication prescription. An important next step will be to examine the source and reasons for these disparities in an effort to develop strategies for minimizing treatment barriers.

KEYWORDS:

community based; predictors; stimulant medication

PMID:
31300310
PMCID:
PMC6765417
[Available on 2020-10-01]
DOI:
10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.06.025

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