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Environ Res. 2019 Jul 4;176:108576. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2019.108576. [Epub ahead of print]

Quantification of eight bisphenol analogues in blood and urine samples of workers in a hazardous waste incinerator.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201, Reus, Catalonia, Spain.
2
LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Bromatology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313, Porto, Portugal.
3
Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201, Reus, Catalonia, Spain. Electronic address: marti.nadal@urv.cat.

Abstract

Bisphenol A (BPA) has been widely used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. In recent years, producers have started replacing BPA by other chemical analogues, such as bisphenol -S (BPS) and -F (BPF), all of them under the label "BPA-free". However, despite bisphenol (BP) analogues have a very similar structure, their endocrine-disrupting properties could differ from those of BPA. Unfortunately, information regarding human exposure to BP analogues is very limited, not only as single substances, but also as chemical mixtures. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of 8 BP analogues (A, S, F, B, AF, Z, E, and AP) in biological samples from a controlled cohort of workers in a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) located in Constantí (Catalonia, Spain). Firstly, a chemical method to analyze a mixture of those 8 analogues in total blood and urine was optimized, being samples quantified by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Furthermore, a biomonitoring study was performed by collecting samples of total blood and urine of 29 people working in the HWI. Among the 8 BP analogues assessed, BPA presented the highest levels in both biological samples, with mean total (free + conjugated) BPA concentrations of 0.58 and 0.86 μg/L in blood and urine, respectively. Free vs. total BPA levels presented a mean percentage of 79% in blood and 19% in urine. Beyond BPA, traces of BPB were also found in a single sample of blood. Furthermore, none of the remaining BP analogues was detected in blood or urine. Despite BPA has been regulated, it is still very present in the environment, being human exposure to this chemical still an issue of concern for the public health.

KEYWORDS:

Analogues; Biomonitoring; Bisphenol A (BPA); Blood; Chemical mixture; Urine

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