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Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019;1154:437-471. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-18616-6_14.

Diagnosis of Human Trematode Infections.

Author information

1
Área de Parasitología, Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnología Farmacéutica y Parasitología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Jguillermo.Esteban@uv.es.
2
Área de Parasitología, Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnología Farmacéutica y Parasitología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
3
Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Abstract

Digenetic trematodes form a major group of human parasites, affecting a large number of humans, especially in endemic foci. Over 100 species have been reported infecting humans, including blood, lung, liver, and intestinal parasites. Traditionally, trematode infections have been diagnosed by parasitological methods based on the detection and the identification of eggs in different clinical samples. However, this is complicated due to the morphological similarity between eggs of different trematode species and other factors such as lack of sensitivity or ectopic locations of the parasites. Moreover, the problem is currently aggravated by migratory flows, international travel, international trade of foods, and changes in alimentary habits. Although efforts have been made for the development of immunological and molecular techniques, the detection of eggs through parasitological techniques remains as the gold standard for the diagnosis of trematodiases. In this chapter, we review the current status of knowledge on diagnostic techniques used when examining feces, urine, and sputum and also analyze the most relevant characteristics used to identify eggs with a quick key for the identification of eggs.

KEYWORDS:

Diagnosis; Digenea; Eggs; Fluke; Liver-, lung-, intestinal-, blood-trematodes; Parasitological techniques; Trematode

PMID:
31297770
DOI:
10.1007/978-3-030-18616-6_14
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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