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J Pharm Anal. 2019 Jun;9(3):193-200. doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2019.03.005. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Effect of an extraction solvent on the antioxidant quality of Pinus densiflora needle extract.

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Department of Forest Products and Biotechnology, College of Science and Technology, Kookmin University, 861-1 Chongnung-dong, Songbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-702, South Korea.


Pinus densiflora needle extract (PDNE) is widely reported to have many pharmacological activities including antioxidant potential. However, the solvent system used for extraction greatly affects its antioxidant quality. Hence, in the present study, we investigated the effect of a different ratio (vol/vol) of ethanol to water (0-100%) in the extraction of PDNE with potent antioxidant capacity. The chemical assays, 2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), were conducted to assess the antioxidant potential of PDNE. Subsequently, the cytoprotective effect of PDNE was determined using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-challenged HepG2 cellular model. The needle extracts from 40% ethanol (PDNE-40) showed greater radical scavenging activity followed by 60%, 20%, 80%, 0% and 100% ethanol extracts. EC50 value of the most active extract, PDNE-40, was 8.56 ± 0.51 μg/mL, relative to 1.34 ± 0.28 μg/mL of the standard trolox (for ABTS radical), and 75.96 ± 11.60 μg/mL, relative to 4.83 ± 0.26 μg/mL of the standard trolox (for DPPH radical). Either PDNE-20 or PDNE-40 pretreatment remarkably decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls in TBHP-challenged HepG2 cells. In addition, both PDNE-20 and PDNE-40 significantly reversed the decreased ratio of reduced (GSH) to oxidized (GSSG) glutathione. Moreover, these two extracts showed a significant inhibitory effect on TBHP-induced nuclear damage and loss of cell viability. In summary, the inclusion of 40% ethanol in water for extraction of Pinus densiflora needle greatly increases the antioxidant quality of the extract.


Cytoprotective; Natural antioxidant; Oxidative stress; Pinus densiflora needle extract

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