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Vaccine. 2019 Aug 23;37(36):5439-5451. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.06.068. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Immunisation of migrants in EU/EEA countries: Policies and practices.

Author information

1
Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. Electronic address: cristina.giambi@iss.it.
2
Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. Electronic address: martina.delmanso@iss.it.
3
Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy; Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy. Electronic address: giulia.marchetti@iss.it.
4
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Gustav III:s boulevard 40, 169 73 Solna, Sweden. Electronic address: kate.olsson@ecdc.europa.eu.
5
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Gustav III:s boulevard 40, 169 73 Solna, Sweden. Electronic address: karam.adelali@ecdc.europa.eu.
6
Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. Electronic address: silvia.declich@iss.it.
7
Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs, Health and Consumer Protection, Vienna, Austria.
8
Sciensano, Brussels, Belgium.
9
Federal agency for the reception of asylum seekers, Brussels, Belgium.
10
Flemish Agency for Care and Health, Brussels, Belgium.
11
Office of Birth and Childhood, Brussels, Belgium.
12
National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia, Bulgaria.
13
Ministry of Health, Sofia, Bulgaria.
14
Croatian Institute of Public Health, Zagreb, Croatia.
15
Ministry of Health, Nicosia, Cyprus.
16
The National Institute of Public Health, Praha, Czech Republic.
17
Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
18
Republic of Estonia Health Board, Tallinn, Estonia.
19
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
20
Ministry of Solidarities and Health, Paris, France.
21
French Institute for Public Health Surveillance, Paris, France.
22
Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany.
23
Hellenic Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Athens, Greece.
24
National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
25
National Public Health Center, Budapest, Hungary.
26
Directorate of Health, Reykjavík, Iceland.
27
Health Services Executive, Dublin, Ireland.
28
Ministry of Health, Rome, Italy.
29
The Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Riga, Latvia.
30
Ministry of Health, Vilnius, Lithuania.
31
Ministry of Health, Luxembourg.
32
Ministry of Health, Msida, Malta.
33
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.
34
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
35
National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland.
36
Directorate-General of Health, Lisbon, Portugal.
37
Aurora Stanescu - National Institute of Public Health, Bucharest, Romania.
38
Public Health Authority, Bratislava, Slovakia.
39
National Institute of Public Health, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
40
Ministry of Health, Consumer Affairs and Social Welfare, Madrid, Spain.
41
Public Health Agency of Sweden, Solna, Sweden.
42
Public Health England, London, United Kingdom.

Abstract

In recent years various EU/EEA countries have experienced an influx of migrants from low and middle-income countries. In 2018, the "Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort (VENICE)" survey group conducted a survey among 30 EU/EEA countries to investigate immunisation policies and practices targeting irregular migrants, refugees and asylum seekers (later called "migrants" in this report). Twenty-nine countries participated in the survey. Twenty-eight countries reported having national policies targeting children/adolescent and adult migrants, however vaccinations offered to adult migrants are limited to specific conditions in seven countries. All the vaccinations included in the National Immunisation Programme (NIP) are offered to children/adolescents in 27/28 countries and to adults in 13/28 countries. In the 15 countries offering only certain vaccinations to adults, priority is given to diphtheria-tetanus, measles-mumps-rubella and polio vaccinations. Information about the vaccines given to child/adolescent migrants is recorded in 22 countries and to adult migrants in 19 countries with a large variation in recording methods found across countries. Individual and aggregated data are reportedly not shared with other centres/institutions in 13 and 15 countries, respectively. Twenty countries reported not collecting data on vaccination uptake among migrants; only three countries have these data at the national level. Procedures to guarantee migrants' access to vaccinations at the community level are available in 13 countries. In conclusion, although diversified, strategies for migrant vaccination are in place in all countries except for one, and the strategies are generally in line with international recommendations. Efforts are needed to strengthen partnerships and implement initiatives across countries of origin, transit and destination to develop and better share documentation in order to guarantee a completion of vaccination series and to avoid unnecessary re-vaccination. Development of migrant-friendly strategies to facilitate migrants' access to vaccination and collection of vaccination uptake data among migrants is needed to meet existing gaps.

KEYWORDS:

Europe; Migrants; Policy; Vaccination; Vaccine preventable diseases

PMID:
31296374
DOI:
10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.06.068
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