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BMC Evol Biol. 2019 Jul 11;19(1):141. doi: 10.1186/s12862-019-1467-3.

The evolutionary history of LysM-RLKs (LYKs/LYRs) in wild tomatoes.

Author information

1
Institute of Population Genetics, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf, Universitaetsstr. 1, 40225, Duesseldorf, Germany.
2
Institute of Population Genetics, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf, Universitaetsstr. 1, 40225, Duesseldorf, Germany. laura.rose@hhu.de.
3
CEPLAS, Cluster of Excellence in Plant Sciences, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf, Universitaetsstr. 1, 40225, Duesseldorf, Germany. laura.rose@hhu.de.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The LysM receptor-like kinases (LysM-RLKs) are important to both plant defense and symbiosis. Previous studies described three clades of LysM-RLKs: LysM-I/LYKs (10+ exons per gene and containing conserved kinase residues), LysM-II/LYRs (1-5 exons per gene, lacking conserved kinase residues), and LysM-III (two exons per gene, with a kinase unlike other LysM-RLK kinases and restricted to legumes). LysM-II gene products are presumably not functional as conventional receptor kinases, but several are known to operate in complexes with other LysM-RLKs. One aim of our study was to take advantage of recently mapped wild tomato transcriptomes to evaluate the evolutionary history of LysM-RLKs within and between species. The second aim was to place these results into a broader phylogenetic context by integrating them into a sequence analysis of LysM-RLKs from other functionally well-characterized model plant species. Furthermore, we sought to assess whether the Group III LysM-RLKs were restricted to the legumes or found more broadly across Angiosperms.

RESULTS:

Purifying selection was found to be the prevailing form of natural selection within species at LysM-RLKs. No signatures of balancing selection were found in species-wide samples of two wild tomato species. Most genes showed a greater extent of purifying selection in their intracellular domains, with the exception of SlLYK3 which showed strong purifying selection in both the extracellular and intracellular domains in wild tomato species. The phylogenetic analysis did not reveal a clustering of microbe/functional specificity to groups of closely related proteins. We also discovered new putative LysM-III genes in a range of Rosid species, including Eucalyptus grandis.

CONCLUSIONS:

The LysM-III genes likely originated before the divergence of E. grandis from other Rosids via a fusion of a Group II LysM triplet and a kinase from another RLK family. SlLYK3 emerges as an especially interesting candidate for further study due to the high protein sequence conservation within species, its position in a clade of LysM-RLKs with distinct LysM domains, and its close evolutionary relationship with LYK3 from Arabidopsis thaliana.

KEYWORDS:

Phylogenetics; Plant immunity; Population genetics; Solanum; Symbiosis

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