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Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2019 Jul 8. pii: S0169-409X(19)30114-0. doi: 10.1016/j.addr.2019.07.006. [Epub ahead of print]

Subchronic and chronic toxicity evaluation of inorganic nanoparticles for delivery applications.

Author information

1
Utah Center for Nanomedicine, Nano Institute of Utah, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
2
Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory, Cancer Research Technology Program, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, USA.
3
Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama 329, Bahrain; Nanomedicine Research Unit, Princess Al-Jawhara Centre for Molecular Medicine and Inherited Disorders, Arabian Gulf University, Manama 329, Bahrain.
4
Utah Center for Nanomedicine, Nano Institute of Utah, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA; Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA; Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Electronic address: hamid.ghandehari@utah.edu.

Abstract

Inorganic nanoparticles provide the opportunity to localize bioactive agents to the target sites and protect them from degradation. In many cases, acute toxicities of inorganic nanoparticles used for delivery applications have been investigated. However, little information is available regarding the long-term toxicity of such materials. This review focuses on the importance of subchronic and chronic toxicity assessment of inorganic nanoparticles investigated for delivery applications. We have attempted to provide a comprehensive review of the available literature for chronic toxicity assessment of inorganic nanoparticles. Where possible correlations are made between particle composition, physiochemical properties, duration, frequency and route of administration, as well as the sex of animals, with tissue and blood toxicity, immunotoxicity and genotoxicity. A critical gap analysis is provided and important factors that need to be considered for long-term toxicology of inorganic nanoparticles are discussed.

KEYWORDS:

Drug delivery; Genotoxicity; Immunotoxicity; Long-term exposure; Nanoparticles; Nanotoxicology; Physiochemical properties; Route of administration; Tissue toxicity

PMID:
31295521
DOI:
10.1016/j.addr.2019.07.006

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