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Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2019 Jul;22(7):451-464. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2018.0731. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Cross-Cultural Validation of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale in Four Forms and Eight Languages.

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1 International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
2 Laboratory for Experimental Psychopathology, Psychological Sciences Research Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
3 Department for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.
4 Department of Psychiatry and Behavior, School of Medicine, Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
5 Department of Social Services and Rehabilitation, Oulu University of Applied Sciences, Oulu, Finland.
6 Research Unit of Nursing Science and Health Management, University of Oulu and Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.
7 EA 4430 Clinique psychanalyse développement (CLIPSYD), Université Paris Nanterre, Nanterre, France.
8 INSERM UMR-S 1266, Institut de Psychiatrie et Neurosciences de Paris (IPNP), Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
9 EA 2931, Centre de recherches sur le sport et le mouvement (CESRM), Université Paris Nanterre, Nanterre, France.
10 LPS EA 849, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France.
11 Psychologie, Langues, Lettres et Histoire Département, University of Nîmes, Nîmes, France.
12 Psychology Department, PSITEC EA 4074, Université Lille Nord de France, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.
13 Department of Psychology, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, New York.
14 Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, UKE-Kore University of Enna, Cittadella Universitaria, Enna, Italy.
15 Department of Clinical Psychology and Addiction, Institute of Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.
16 Department of Family Science and Social Work and Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II, Lublin, Poland.
17 Department of Psychology, Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II, Lublin, Poland.
18 Service de toxicomanie, Faculte de medicine Université de Sherbrooke, Longueuil, Canada.
19 Department of Psychiatry, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center/Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.
20 Department of Basic Psychology and University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
21 Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
22 Department of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
23 Department of Psychiatry, Research Unit Addictive Disorders, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
24 Department of Mental Health and Psychiatry, Addiction Division, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
25 Department of Psychology, Clinical Neuroscience Research Group, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
26 Institute for Health and Behavior, Addictive and Compulsive Behaviours Lab, University of Luxembourg, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.


The 14-item Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) is one of the most frequently internationally adapted psychometric instruments developed to assess generalized problematic Internet use. Multiple adaptations of this instrument have led to versions in different languages (e.g., Arabic and French), and different numbers of items (e.g., from 5 to 16 items instead of the original 14). However, to date, the CIUS has never been simultaneously compared and validated in several languages and different versions. Consequently, the present study tested the psychometric properties of four CIUS versions (i.e., CIUS-14, CIUS-9, CIUS-7, and CIUS-5) across eight languages (i.e., German, French, English, Finnish, Spanish, Italian, Polish, and Hungarian) to (a) examine their psychometric properties, and (b) test their measurement invariance. These analyses also identified the optimal versions of the CIUS. The data were collected via online surveys administered to 4,226 voluntary participants from 15 countries, aged at least 18 years, and recruited from academic environments. All brief versions of the CIUS in all eight languages were validated. Dimensional, configural, and metric invariance were established across all languages for the CIUS-5, CIUS-7, and CIUS-9, but the CIUS-5 and CIUS-7 were slightly more suitable because their model fitted the ordinal estimate better, while for cross-comparisons, the CIUS-9 was slightly better. The brief versions of the CIUS are therefore reliable and structurally stable instruments that can be used for cross-cultural research across adult populations.


Compulsive Internet Use Scale; cross-cultural research; measurement invariance; psychometric testing


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