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J Microsc Ultrastruct. 2019 Apr-Jun;7(2):78-83. doi: 10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_64_18.

Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward the Use of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids among the Population of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

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Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Princess Doctor Najla Bint Saud Al-Saud Distinguished Research Centre for Biotechnology, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Department of Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture Ain Shams University, Cairo Egypt.



The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) among the population of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and their knowledge and attitudes.


This was a community-based, cross-sectional observational study. This study was conducted using a questionnaire that was distributed among the population during the period from February 3, 2018, to February 25, 2018. This questionnaire comprised 31 questions, designed to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward using AASs.


A total of 300 participants were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the population was 30.66 ± 9.2 years. Fourteen participants admitted using AASs, with a percentage of 4.7%, among whom 85.7% were male (P = 0.0005). Seventy-eight percent of AAS users believed that AASs do not cause tolerance when taken for a longtime (P = 0.023). However, the majority of both AAS users and nonusers did not agree on taking AASs for a longtime. Our results showed a strong correlation between not taking AASs and not consuming energy drinks (P = 0.0023). Half of our respondents exhibited poor knowledge regarding the side effects of AASs. The level of knowledge did not correlate with the use of AAS, gender, exercising, or consuming energy drinks.


The results showed poor knowledge regarding using AASs among the population of Jeddah. Thus, we recommend having a national awareness program in order to prevent the possible side effects of misusing AASs.


Anabolic-androgenic steroid; Jeddah; knowledge; testosterone

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