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J Hum Reprod Sci. 2019 Apr-Jun;12(2):164-168. doi: 10.4103/jhrs.JHRS_127_18.

Comparison of Perinatal Outcomes of Singletons Following Vanishing Twin Phenomenon and Singletons with Initial Single Gestational Sac Conceived Following Assisted Reproductive Technology: A Retrospective Analysis.

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Department of Reproductive Medicine, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
Department of Biostatistics, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.



The aim of the study was to compare the perinatal outcomes between singletons following vanishing twin phenomenon and singletons arising from initial single gestational sac following assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment.

Setting and Design:

This was a retrospective cohort study.

Materials and Methods:

A retrospective cohort study included analysis of all singleton births following ART over a period of 7 years (January 2010 -December 2016). All women who underwent fresh or frozen embryo ART cycles were followed up. The study population included all singleton births following spontaneous reduction of one of the gestational sacs in dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies. The perinatal outcome of this group was compared with those of singletons arising from the initial single gestational sac.


A total of 521 singleton births were recorded during the study period. In the study group, 72 singleton births had spontaneous reduction of one of the gestational sacs (vanishing twin group) and the remaining 449 had an initial single gestational sac. The risk for low birth weight (LBW) (14/72, 19.4% vs. 96/449, 21.6%) and preterm birth (PTB) (17/72, 23.6% vs. 134/449, 29.8%) was not significantly different between those singletons who had spontaneous reduction from two gestational sacs to single sac compared to those with initial single sac. The miscarriage rate was significantly lower in vanishing twin group compared to control group (7/84, 8.3% vs. 157/622, 25.2%; P = 0.01). The subgroup analysis based on spontaneous reduction occurring before or after the appearance of the embryonic pole also showed similar risk of PTB (11/41, 26.8.% vs. 9/31, 29.0%) and LBW (7/41, 17.1% vs. 9/31, 29.0%).


Perinatal outcomes in singleton live births following vanishing twin phenomenon are similar to those pregnancies with an initial single gestational sac following ART.


Assisted reproductive technology; low birth weight; preterm birth; vanishing twin

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