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Cell Rep. 2019 Jul 9;28(2):567-579.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.06.023.

Cryo-EM Studies of TMEM16F Calcium-Activated Ion Channel Suggest Features Important for Lipid Scrambling.

Author information

1
Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.
2
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.
3
Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.
4
Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address: lily.jan@ucsf.edu.
5
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address: ycheng@ucsf.edu.

Abstract

As a Ca2+-activated lipid scramblase and ion channel that mediates Ca2+ influx, TMEM16F relies on both functions to facilitate extracellular vesicle generation, blood coagulation, and bone formation. How a bona fide ion channel scrambles lipids remains elusive. Our structural analyses revealed the coexistence of an intact channel pore and PIP2-dependent protein conformation changes leading to membrane distortion. Correlated to the extent of membrane distortion, many tightly bound lipids are slanted. Structure-based mutagenesis studies further reveal that neutralization of some lipid-binding residues or those near membrane distortion specifically alters the onset of lipid scrambling, but not Ca2+ influx, thus identifying features outside of channel pore that are important for lipid scrambling. Together, our studies demonstrate that membrane distortion does not require open hydrophilic grooves facing the membrane interior and provide further evidence to suggest separate pathways for lipid scrambling and ion permeation.

KEYWORDS:

PIP(2) modulation; TMEM16F; calcium; cryo-EM; ion channel; lipid scramblase; membrane distortion

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