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Arch Physiol Biochem. 2019 Dec;125(5):470-477. doi: 10.1080/13813455.2019.1638414. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Nicotinamide protects against skeletal muscle atrophy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

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Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University , Shanghai , China.
Department of Biology, College of Arts and Sciences, Boston University , Boston , MA , USA.
Department of Sports Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University , Shanghai , China.


Context: Skeletal muscle atrophy is a complication of diabetes, partially induced by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) deficiency. Objective: This study investigates the potential of nicotinamide (NAM) supplementation, a precursor of NAD+, against muscle atrophy. Methods: Mice were separated into normal control group, normal control with NAM administration group, diabetic group, and diabetic mice with NAM administration group. Basic characteristics, muscle weight, maximal grip strength, and myofibers cross-sectional area were analysed. Markers reflecting muscle atrophy and hypertrophy, and transforming growth factor β1/Smad2 (TGF-β1/Smad2) pathway were examined. Results: NAM did not influence body weight and blood glucose. In diabetic mice, NAM increased NAD+ level, rescued muscle weight and strength loss, and increased myofibers cross-sectional area. NAM inhibited MuRF1 and Atrogin1, while elevated phosphorylation of Akt. Overactivation of TGF-β1/Smad2 pathway was repressed by NAM. Conclusion: NAM ameliorated diabetic muscle atrophy by rebalancing protein anabolism and catabolism, probably through de-activation of TGF-β1/Smad2 signaling.


Nicotinamide; TGF-β1; atrophy; diabetes mellitus; skeletal muscle

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