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Cell Tissue Res. 2019 Dec;378(3):385-398. doi: 10.1007/s00441-019-03061-3. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

Focus on dedifferentiated adipocytes: characteristics, mechanisms, and possible applications.

Author information

1
Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec (IUCPQ), 2725 Chemin Sainte-Foy, Québec, QC, G1V 4G5, Canada.
2
School of Nutrition, Laval University, 2425 Rue de l'Agriculture, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada.
3
Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec (IUCPQ), 2725 Chemin Sainte-Foy, Québec, QC, G1V 4G5, Canada. andre.tchernof@criucpq.ulaval.ca.
4
School of Nutrition, Laval University, 2425 Rue de l'Agriculture, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada. andre.tchernof@criucpq.ulaval.ca.

Abstract

It is largely believed that after undergoing differentiation, adipocytes can no longer divide. Yet, using ceiling culture, it was demonstrated in vitro that some adipocytes are able to regain proliferative abilities by becoming fibroblast-like cells called dedifferentiated adipocytes. Mature adipocytes are abundant, can be easily isolated, and represent a homogenous cell population. Because of these advantageous characteristics, dedifferentiated adipocytes are clinically attractive in tissue engineering as a potential treatment resource for conditions such as type 2 diabetes, cardiac and kidney diseases, as well as autoimmune diseases. The aim of this review article is to summarize current knowledge on adipocyte dedifferentiation by accurately describing dedifferentiated adipocyte characteristics such as morphological appearance, gene expression, antigen signature, pluripotency, and functionality. Current hypotheses possibly explaining the biological mechanisms and cellular reprogramming of the dedifferentiation process are summarized. Dedifferentiated adipocytes show a stem cell-like antigen profile and genome signature which add to their proliferative capacities and their ability to re-differentiate into diverse cell lineages. The dedifferentiation process likely involves liposecretion, that is, the rapid secretion of the cell's lipid droplet. Dedifferentiated adipocytes may allow development of new uses in tissue engineering.

KEYWORDS:

Adipocyte; Ceiling culture; Cellular reprogramming; Liposecretion; Stem cells

PMID:
31289929
DOI:
10.1007/s00441-019-03061-3

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