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Sleep. 2019 Jul 9. pii: zsz159. doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsz159. [Epub ahead of print]

Automated Sleep Stage Scoring of the Sleep Heart Health Study Using Deep Neural Networks.

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Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN.
Department of Neurology, Sleep Disorders Division, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN.
Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN.



Polysomnography (PSG) scoring is labor intensive and suffers from variability in inter- and intra-rater reliability. Automated PSG scoring has the potential to reduce the human labor costs and the variability inherent to this task. Deep learning is a form of machine learning that uses neural networks to recognize data patterns by inspecting many examples rather than by following explicit programming.


A sleep staging classifier trained using deep learning methods scored PSG data from the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS). The training set was composed of 42,560 hours of PSG data from 5,213 patients. To capture higher-order data, spectrograms were generated from electroencephalography, electrooculography, and electromyography data and then passed to the neural network. A hold-out set of 580 PSGs not included in the training set was used to assess model accuracy and discrimination via weighted F1-score, per-stage accuracy, and Cohen's Kappa (K).


The optimal neural network model was composed of spectrograms in the input layer feeding into CNN layers and an LSTM layer to achieve a weighted F1-score of 0.87 and K = 0.82.


The deep learning sleep stage classifier demonstrates excellent accuracy and agreement with expert sleep stage scoring, outperforming human agreement on sleep staging. It achieves comparable or better F1-scores, accuracy, and Cohen's Kappa compared to literature for automated sleep stage scoring of PSG epochs. Accurate automated scoring of other PSG events may eventually allow for fully automated PSG scoring.


Deep Learning; Machine Learning; Polysomnography; Sleep Staging


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