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Food Sci Nutr. 2019 May 15;7(6):2091-2102. doi: 10.1002/fsn3.1050. eCollection 2019 Jun.

Diet quality, consumption of seafood and eggs are associated with sleep quality among Chinese urban adults: A cross-sectional study in eight cities of China.

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Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health Peking University Health Science Center Beijing China.
Department of Social Science and Health Education, School of Public Health Peking University Health Science Center Beijing China.
Inner Mongolia Dairy Technology Research Institute Co. Ltd Hohhot China.
Yili Innovation Center Inner Mongolia Yili Industrial Group Co. Ltd Hohhot China.


Growing evidence has suggested that dietary modification is implicated with sleep alteration. Our study aimed to determine whether an association between diet in terms of diet quality, certain food consumption, and dietary nutrients intake and sleep quality existed in Chinese urban adults, which has been fully investigated. A cross-sectional study was conducted among urban adults from eight Chinese cities. Total of 1,548 participants remained in the final analysis. Sleep quality was evaluated by the Chinese version of the Pittsburg Sleep Questionnaire Index. Diet quality, evaluated by Chinese Healthy Diet Index, and dietary intake, including food groups and nutrients, were derived from a semiquantitative Food Intake Frequencies Questionnaire and a single 24-hr dietary recall. The relationship between dietary variables and sleep quality was examined using multivariable logistic regression models. Logistic regression analysis indicated that better diet quality, which features greater food diversity, higher ingestion of fruits and fish, along with higher seafood consumption, lower eggs consumption, and higher total energy intake, was significantly associated with lower risk of poor sleep quality in the crude model and the fully adjusted model with adjustment for gender, age, self-rated health condition, self-assessed mental stress, smoking, hypertension, and BMI. Therefore, we reached a conclusion that diet quality and certain food consumption were related to sleep quality. Although the associations observed in the cross-sectional study require further investigation in prospective studies, dietary intervention, such as enhancement in food diversity and consumption of fruits and seafood, might serve as a probable strategy for sleep improvement.


diet quality; eggs; food; seafood; sleep quality

Conflict of interest statement

All the authors declare no conflict of interest. Transparency Declaration: The lead author affirms that this manuscript is an honest, accurate, and transparent account of the study being reported. The reporting of this work is compliant with STROBE guidelines. The lead author affirms that no important aspects of the study have been omitted and that any discrepancies from the study as planned have been explained.

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