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Z Gastroenterol. 2019 Jul;57(7):871-882. doi: 10.1055/a-0755-2595. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

[Microbiome & NASH - partners in crime driving progression of fatty liver disease].

[Article in German; Abstract available in German from the publisher]

Author information

1
Medizinische Klinik III, Medizinische Fakultät der RWTH Aachen, Germany.

Abstract

in English, German

Along with the increasing prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rapidly increasing and poses a major challenge for gastroenterologists. Many studies have demonstrated that the microbiome is closely associated with the progression of nutrition-related diseases, especially of fatty liver disease. Changes in the quantity and quality of the intestinal flora, commonly referred to as dysbiosis, result in altered food metabolism, increased permeability of the intestinal barrier ("leaky gut") and consecutive inflammatory processes in the liver. This favors both the progression of obesity and metabolic disorders as well as NAFLD towards non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Important molecular mechanisms include microbial metabolites, microbial and endogenous signaling substances (so-called PAMPs/DAMPs) as well as bile acids. Essential cellular mechanisms include immune cells in the gut and liver, especially macrophages and Kupffer cells, as well as intestinal epithelial cells and hepatocytes as central regulators of metabolism. In this review article, we briefly summarize the relevant species of the human microbiome, describe the microbial analytics, explain the most important molecular relationships between microbiome and NAFLD/NASH, and finally the opportunities and challenges of microbiome-modulating therapy for the treatment of fatty liver disease.

PMID:
31288283
DOI:
10.1055/a-0755-2595
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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